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THE HEART OF THE ANTARCTIC
BEING THE STORY OF THE BRITISH ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION 1907-1909 BY SIR ERNEST SHACKLETON, C.V.O.
NEW AND REVISED EDITION WITH ILLUSTRATIONS IN COLOUR AND BLACK AND WHITE
First published in Two Volumes, November 4, 1909
Popular Edition (One Volume) November 4, 1910
Second Impression, November 1919
London, William Heinemann, and Washington, U.S.A.,
by J. B. Lippincott Company
THE scientific results of the expedition cannot be stated in detail in a single volume. Some of the more important features of the geographical work were as follow.
We passed the winter of 1908 in McMurdo Sound, twenty miles north of the Discovery winter quarters. In the autumn a party ascended Mount Erebus and surveyed its various craters. In the spring and summer of 1908-9 three sledging-parties left winter quarters; one went south and attained the most southerly latitude ever reached by man, and another reached the South Magnetic pole for the first time; while a third surveyed the mountain ranges west of McMurdo Sound.
The Southern Sledge-party planted the Union Jack in latitude 88° 23' South, within one hundred geographical miles of the South Pole. This party of four ascertained that a great chain of mountains extends from the 82nd parallel, south of McMurdo Sound, to the 86th parallel, trending in a south-easterly direction; that other great mountain ranges continue to the south and southwest, and that between them flows one of the largest glaciers in the world, leading to an inland plateau, the height of which, at latitude 88° South, is over 11,000 ft. above sea-level. This plateau presumably continues beyond the geographical South Pole, and extends from Cape Adore to the Pole.
The journey made by the Northern Party resulted in the attainment of the South Magnetic Pole, the position of which was fixed, by observations made on the spot and in the neighbourhood, at latitude 72° 25' South, longitude 155° 16' East. The first part of this journey was made along the coast-line of Victoria Land, and many new peaks, glaciers, and ice-tongues were discovered, in addition to a couple of small islands. The whole of the coast traversed was carefully triangulated, and the existing map was corrected in several respects.
The survey of the western mountains by the Western Party added to the information of the topographical details of that part of Victoria Land, and threw some new light on its geology.
The discovery of forty-five miles of new coast-line extending from Cape North, first in a south-westerly and then in a westerly direction, was another important piece of geographical work.
I should like to tender my warmest thanks to those generous people who supported the expedition in its early days. Miss Dawson Lambton and Miss E. Dawson Lambton made possible the first steps towards the organisation of the expedition, and assisted afterwards in every way that lay in their power. Mr. William Beardmore (Glasgow), Mr. G. A. McLean Buckley (New Zealand), Mr. Campbell McKellar (London), Mr. Sydney Lysaght (Somerset), Mr. A. M. Fry (Bristol), Colonel Alexander Davis (London), Mr. H. H. Bartlett (London), and other friends contributed liberally towards the cost of the expedition.
I also wish to thank those friends who guaranteed a large part of the necessary expenditure, and the Imperial Government for the grant of £20,000, which enabled me to redeem those guarantees.
Oversea Britain showed a sympathetic interest. I am indebted to the Government of the Commonwealth of Australia for a contribution of £5000. The New Zealand Government gave me £1000; and also agreed to pay half the cost of towing the Nimrod as far as the Antarctic Circle. Indeed the kindness and generosity of Australasians will remain one of the happiest memories of the "British Antarctic Expedition, 1907." My indebtedness to various firms in the matter of supplies has been acknowledged in chapter viii.
I have drawn on the diaries of various members of the expedition to supply information regarding events that occurred while I was absent on journeys. Professor T. W. Edgeworth David narrates the incidents of the Northern Journey. The photographs with which this volume is illustrated have been selected from some thousands taken by Brocklehurst, David, Davis, Day, Dunlop, Harbord, Joyce, Mackintosh, Marshall, Mawson, Murray and Wild, secured often under circumstances of exceptional difficulty.
In regard to the management of the affairs of the expedition during my absence in the Antarctic, I would like to acknowledge the work done for me by my brother-in-law, Mr. Herbert Dorman, of London; by Mr. J. J. Kinsey, of Christchurch, New Zealand; and by Mr. Alfred Reid, the manager of the expedition, whose work throughout has been as arduous as it has been efficient.
Finally, let me say that to the members of the expedition, whose work and enthusiasm have been the means of securing the measure of success recorded in these pages, I owe a debt of gratitude that I can hardly find words to express. I realise very fully that without their faithful service and loyal co-operation under conditions of extreme difficulty success in any branch of our work would have been impossible.
ERNEST H. SHACKLETON
PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION
THE publication of this edition of "The Heart of the Antarctic" calls for a word or two from me.
Owing to the necessity of recording all that occurred during our stay in the Antarctic and the inclusion of much scientific matter, the first edition attained proportions that made it, not only expensive to publish, but placed the book out of reach of the ordinary reader.
In this edition the narrative embraces all matters of general public interest. Judging by the way in which the public has shown its interest in the doings of the Expedition, I feel that the time has come for the issue of an account of our Work in Antarctica, less bulky in form and at a lower price.
I hope that the following pages will convey to readers a good idea of the work of our Expedition in the Far South: and, as a last word, I wish to thank Britons all the world over for the keen interest taken in the efforts of our members to extend the general knowledge of that portion of the Imperial Dominion round about the Pole.
E. H. S.
Inception and Preparation: Food Supply: Equipment: The /Vinsra: Hut for Winter Quarters: Clothing: Ponies, Dogs, and Motor-car: Scientific Instruments: Miscellaneous Articles of Equipment
THE STAFF OF THE EXPEDITION
The Members of the Expedition :Nimrod leaves East India Docks, July 80: In the Solent, August 3-5
ROYAL VISIT TO THE NIMROD
In the Solent: The Nimrod visited by Royal Party: Her Majesty Queen Alexandra presents a Union Jack to the Commander of the Expedition Torquay, August 6: Nimrod arrives: August 7, the Nimrod sails for Lytteltoa, via St. Vincent and Cape Town: Arrival at Lyttelton, November 23,1907
LYTTELTON TO THE ANTARCTIC CIRCLE
Final Preparations at Lyttelton: Enthusiastic send-off: In tow of the Soonya for 1510 miles: Getting through the Pack-ice: Ross Sea reached January 17
THE ATTEMPT TO REACH KING EDWARD VII LAND
Disappearance of Barrier Inlet: Course to King Edward VII Land blocked by Ice: Course set for McMurdo Sound: Arrival at Cape Royds, February 3
THE LANDING OF STORES AND EQUIPMENT
FEBRUARY 3-22, 1908
Blizzard in McMurdo Sound, February 18-21: Nimrod sails for New Zealand, February 22
WINTER QUARTERS AT CAPE ROY DS OUTSIDE
View from Winter Quarters over the Sound and the Western Mountains: Field for Scientific Work: The Hut completed and Out-buildings erected: Interior arrangements: The bed question: Acetylene Gas-plant
Sledges: Cookers: Tents: Sleeping-bags: Clothing :;Ponies: Dogs and Food: Acknowledgment of Supplies presented to the Expedition by various Firms
THE CONQUEST OF MOUNT EREBUS
March 5: Party starts from Winter Quarters to ascend Mount Erebus: Camp 2750 ft. above Sea-level: March 8, altitude 5630 ft. and Depot made: Starch 7, Fierce Blizzard, Brockleharat badly frostbitten: March 8, Camp 11,400 ft.: March 9, Highest Point reached 13,370 ft.: Descent safely accomplished
WINTER QUARTERS DURING POLAR NIGHT 1908:
NOTES ON SPRING SLEDGING JOURNEYS
Meteorological Observations: The Anemometer: Night Watchman's Duties: Fierce Blizzard on March 13: Preliminary Journey on the Barrier Surface starts August 12: Hut Point reached August 14: Party starts for Hut Point on September 1, to leave there some Gear and Provisions in readiness for the Southern Journey
THE SOUTHERN JOURNEY
Preparation: Depot A laid: First Days of the March from Winter Quarters: Start from Hut Point, November 3
BEYOND ALL FORMER FOOTSTEPS
NOVEMBER 10 TO DECEMBER 4
Steady Progress: The Sighting of New Land
ON THE GREAT GLACIER
DECEMBER 5 TO 17
Appearance of a Bird in 83° 40' South Latitude: Our last Pony engulfed, Decembet 7: Dangerous travelling in a maze of Crevasses: Discovery of Coal at an altitude of 6100 ft
ON THE PLATEAU TO THE FARTHEST SOUTH
DECEMBER 18, 1908, TO JANUARY 8, 1909
December 21, Midsummer Day, with 28° of. Frost: Christmas Day at an Altitude of 9500 ft. in Latitude 85° 55' South: Christmas Fare: Last Depot on January 4: Blinding Blizzard for two Days, January 7, 8: Altitude 11,600 ft.
JANUARY 9, 1909
The Union Jack planted in Latitude 88° 23' South, Longitude 16° East P. 210
THE RETURN MARCH
JANUARY 10 TO FEBRUARY 22
First Homeward Marches: Back on the Barrier: Attacks of Dysentery: Chinaman Depot reached February 13: Depot A reached February 20: Nearing Bluff Depot
THE FINAL STAGE
FEBRUARY 23 TO MARCH 4
Bluff Depot reached: Marshall's Condition worse on February 26: Marshall and Adams remain in Camp while Shackleton and Wild make a Forced March to Hut Point: On board Nimrod: Relief Party start to bring in Marshall and Adams: All Safe on Board Ship March 4, 1908
SOME NOTES ON THE SOUTHERN JOURNEY
"Turning Backs": Pony Soup The "Wild Roll": Frost-bite: Glacier Surfaces: Painful Falls: Particular Duties assigned to each Member of the Southern Party
RETURN OF THE NIMROD
The Ship blocked by Ice off Beaufort Island: Mails landed Twenty-eight Miles from Cape Royds on January 3: Mackintosh and McGillan tra vel over Ice to Winter Quarters: Narrow Escapes: They reach Hut January 12
BLUFF DEPOT JOURNEY
JANUARY 16 TO FEBRUARY 15, 1909
Dog-team with Load of 500 lb.: A Discovery Depot: Southern Party Overdue: Sledge-marks of Outward March of Southern Party found: Good Work by Dogs
NOTES ON THE WESTERN JOURNEY
Christmas Day at Knob Head Mountain: In search of Fossils: Adrift on a Floe: Party Picked up by the Nimrod, January 26
EXTRACTS FROM THE NARRATIVE OF
Final Instructions: Loss of a Cooker: Camp at Butter Point: Travelling over Sea-ice heavy Relay-work: Cooking with Blubber: Seal Bouillon: Dry. galski Glacier: Depot laid: Preparations for trek Inland: Depot at Mount Larsen: New Year's Day in Latitude 74' 18': Arrival at Magnetic Pole (mean position of) January 18, 1909, 72° 25' S., 155° 16' E.: Union Jack hoisted at 3.30 P.M.
THE RETURN MARCH
JANUARY 17 TO FEBRUARY 5
March of 250 Miles back to our Depot on Drygalski Glacier: Sugar in the Hoosh: A Question of Route: Ice Dongas: Nearing the Coast: A Barranca: Severe Climbing: Our Unhappy Lot: A Double Detonator: Mawson in a Crevasse: Afternoon Tea on board the Nimrod
A BRIEF RETROSPECT
total Distance Travelled: Travelling over Sea-ice: The Drygalski Glacier: Backstairs Passage: Results of Journey: How to spend a Week at the Magnetic Pole
ALL ABOARD: THE RETURN TO NEW ZEALAND
An Oar Breaks: Disaster Averted: Last View of Winter Quarters: Supplies left at Cape Roy ds: New Coast-line: Anchored at Mouth of Lord's River, Stewart Island, March 22: Arrived Lyttelton, March 25, 1909
I. SOME NOTES BY JAMES MURRAY, BIOLOGIST TO THE EXPEDITION
II. SOUTHERN JOURNEY DISTANCES BY THE COMMANDER OF THE EXPEDITION