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Early American Craftsmen




By

Walter A. Dyer

Author of "The Lure of the Antique," etc.
Being a Series of Sketches of the Lives of the more important Personalities in the Early Development of the Industrial Arts in America, together with sundry Facts and Photographs of Interest and Value to the Collector of Americana.

New York

The Century Company
1915




PAUL REVERE From the crayon portrait made by Fevret de Saint-Mémin in 1804


TABLE OF CONTENTS
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
THE VOGUE OF AMERICANA
SAMUEL MCINTIRE, MASTER CARPENTER
THE EXQUISITE FURNITURE OF DUNCAN PHYFE
AMERICAN WINDSOR CHAIRS
THE CLOCKMAKERS OF CONNECTICUT
THE WILLARDS AND THEIR CLOCKS
BARON STIEGEL AND HIS GLASSWARE
THE VERSATILE PAUL REVERE
OTHER AMERICAN SILVERSMITHS
AMERICAN PEWTERERS AND BRASIERS

EARLY AMERICAN POTTERS
THE POTTERS OF BENNINGTON
AMERICAN FURNITURE MAKERS
OTHER CRAFTS AND CRAFTSMEN
BIBLIOGRAPHY


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

is here rendered to the many friends and acquaintances who assisted me in the gathering of this material, to the authors of the various works consulted, and to the publishers of the magazines in which some of these chapters first appeared. Chapters II, III, V, and VII were published in The House Beautiful; Chapters IV and VI and portions of others were published in Country Life in America; and part of Chapter XIII in Good Furniture.
W. A. D. 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAUL REVERE From the crayon portrait made by Fevret de Saint-Mémin in 1804

The new way of displaying museum collections is not behind glass doors but in a reconstructed environment. Lower hall of the Colonial house containing the Pendleton Collection, Providence, R I

A corner in one of the rooms at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, containing the Bolles Collection and other Americana

The old Assembly House, Salem, Mass., built in 1782, is fairly typical of the style of architecture employed by Samuel McIntire

Hall in the Nichols House, Salem, designed by McIntire. The picture includes the original carved gate-posts as well as a bit of fine woodwork.

Coat-of-arms of Massachusetts, designed and carved in wood by McIntire. Now in the Essex Institute, Salem

McIntire's stairways and banisters are always interesting Nichols house

Pediment from the old Custom House, Salem, carved by McIntire in 1805 and now owned by the Essex Institute

The famous Washington medallion that once adorned the McIntire archway, Washington Square, Salem

Bust of Governor Winthrop carved in wood by Samuel McIntire for Rev. William Bentley in 1798 and now owned by the American Antiquarian Society

Eight-legged sofa of the Sheraton type, by Duncan Phyfe. Owned by R. T. Haines Halsey, Esq., New York

The long, three-support extension table in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Phyfe sofa with cornucopia legs and lyre arms. Halsey Collection

Phyfe extension table with two four-pillar supports, showing the fine acanthus-leaf carving. Halsey Collection

Folding card table with octagonal top and crossed lyre support. Halsey Collection

Phyfe music rack, Empire period. Owned by Mrs. Dwight M. Prouty, Boston

Phyfe stand, showing a favorite form of table top. Halsey Collection

One of the less common forms of Phyfe chair, with straight front legs and cane seat

Lyre-back chair, Halsey Collection. Similar to those in the Metropolitan Museum

A splendid example of medallion-back Phyfe side chair, owned by Mr. Halsey

Medallion-back armchair, showing a slight tendency toward the heavier type of design

At the left, hoop-back armchair with carved arms, New Jersey type; center, a good example of New England loop-back armchair; right, the later and less graceful development of the same, with the bamboo style of turning and the arms joined to the loop, not of the same piece. Bolles Collection

An unusually good pair of loop-back side chairs, owned by the author

Extension armchairs, Bolles Collection. At the left, an unusually tall hoop-back; center, fan-back or comb-back armchair, with scroll ears, New Jersey style; right, a more graceful form of the same with carved arms

At the left, a hoop-back armchair from Massachusetts, with plain arms, owned by the author; right, writing-chair in the Bolles Collection, like a low-back Windsor with comb-back extension

At the left, New England loop-back armchair, with comb-back extension, back braces, and bamboo turning; center, a very late and awkward development of the comb-back rocker; right, child's comb-back or fan-back armchair, New Jersey style. Bolles Collection

At the left, a good example of the fan-back side chair New Jersey style; right, fan-back armchair, New Jersey style, like a low-back Windsor with fan-back extension. Bolles Collection

Typical English Windsors with pierced splats. Compare the lines and proportions with those of American chairs

A good example of the late Windsor settee from Pennsylvania. Owned by Mr. David B. Missemer

Examples of late Pennsylvania forms, owned by Mr. D. B. Missemer

A good example of the low-back Windsor, owned by Mr. Renwick C. Hurry

At the left, comb-back rocker, owned by Mrs. Elizabeth H. Marks; right, child's hoop-back rocker and Pennsylvania fan-back side chair, owned by Mr. D. B. Missemer

Hoop-back armchair with rockers added and a late form of Windsor rocker, owned by Mrs. Elizabeth H. Marks

Eli Terry, from a portrait painted between 1800 and 1810. To the right, patent issued to Eli Terry in 1826 and now owned by Mr. Dwight H. Terry, Plymouth, Conn.

Clock made by Daniel Burnap in 1799. Now owned by Miss Mary W. Andrews, Hartford, Conn.

Tall clock made by Silas Hoadley after 1814, with a painted metal dial bearing the maker's name

Seth Thomas. From a steel engraving in "The History of Litchfield County."

Silas Hoadley. From a portrait owned by Carleton E. Hoadley, Esq., New Haven, Conn.

Tall clock made by Eli Terry in 1794. Now owned by Mr. A. C. Bunnell, Ridley Park, Pa.

An early tall clock with wooden works made by Terry. Owned by Mrs. James W. Cook of Providence

Face and works of an early wooden clock by Eli Terry

A good example of the pillar-and-scroll-top style made by both Terry and Thomas

A later type of shelf clock made by Seth Thomas. Owned by Mr. L. A. Klein, Ridley Park, Pa

Congregational Church, Terryville, Conn. The clock was made by Eli Terry in 1835

The original works, with their wooden wheels, remain in the Terryville church clock, but are now regulated by an electrical connection

Simon Willard. From a portrait owned by the Misses Bird, Dorchester, Mass.

Simon Willard tall clock owned by the Butler Hospital, Providence, R. I.

A typical example of Willard tall clock, with moon's phases above the dial

A Simon Willard presentation timepiece, owned by Mr. Dwight M. Prouty, Boston

An Aaron Willard banjo clock with a picture of the Constitution-Guerrière battle

An Aaron Willard shelf clock, forty inches high. Owned by Mr. Dwight M. Prouty, Boston

A unique gravity clock by Simon Willard. The entire clock swings like a pendulum

Mantel clock in a handsome mahogany case, made by Aaron Willard. Prouty Collection

A typical Simon Willard patent timepiece or banjo clock. The eagle on top is probably a later addition

The advertisement label which Simon Willard pasted inside the cases of his tall clocks

Five Baron Stiegel salt cups of the fourteen owned by Mrs. Albert K. Hostetter, Lancaster, Pa

Clear and tinted pitchers and creamers in the Hostetter Collection

Stiegel glassware, Metropolitan Museum. Examples of blown relief decoration; barrel tumbler and salt dish

Stiegel glassware in the Hunter Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Salt dish and creamer in tinted ware

Cotton-stem wine glasses, enameled tumblers, and tinted sugar bowls in the Hostetter Collection of Stiegel glass ware

Enameled tumblers and mugs. Hostetter Collection

Two tumblers in the Hunter Collection of Stiegel glassware. A clear-glass tumbler, corrugated or fluted style, with an etched festoon border; and an example of the enameled ware — the cockatoo pattern

A group of silverware made by Paul Revere and exhibited at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in 1906

The famous Sons of Liberty punch bowl made by Revere in 1768; now owned by Marsden J. Perry, Esq., Providence, R. I. The salt cellar, another patriotic Revere piece, is the property of R. T. Haines Halsey, Esq., New York

A silver tea set of extraordinary grace made by Paul Revere in 1799 for presentation to Edmund Hartt, constructor of the frigate Boston. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Silver sauce pan of unusual design, by Paul Revere

Part of the exhibit of Revere silverware at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in 1906

Revere's bookplate, drawn and engraved by himself

A Revere teapot of great beauty. Clearwater Collection

"The Boston Massacre," the most famous of Revere's engravings

"Harvard College," by Joseph Chadwick and Paul Revere

Repoussé sugar bowl. An example of Revere's later work

A Paul Revere pitcher owned by Mr. George Francis Dow, Salem, Mass.

A collection of silver porringers from the Boston exhibit, arranged in chronological order. The makers are Dummer, Cony, Edwards, Cowell, Dixwell, John Burt, Hurd, Samuel Burt, Revere, and Swan

Communion cups owned by the Congregational Church at Stratford, Conn. The six caudle cups are by Cony, Noyes, and Cowell, the two beakers by Hurd, and the chalice by Dummer

Baptismal basin by Kneeland (Boston, about 1735); caudle cups by Dummer and Dixwell. Owned by the Center Congregational Church, New Haven, Conn.

Alms basin by Revere, flagons by the Burts, beakers by Hull, Dummer and others. Owned by the First Church of Christ, Marblehead, Mass.

A remarkable teapot in the Clearwater Collection. Probably made by Daniel Rogers in Newport about 1750

Old silver beaker from New York, Dutch type, maker unknown; and communion beakers by Dummer and Hull

Mugs or cans by Andrew Tyler of Boston and Cæsar Griselm of Philadelphia. Clearwater Collection

Loving cup by R. Swan and a plain silver tankard made by Cary Dunn about 1780

A teapot by Cony and a coffee pot by Winslow. From the Clearwater Collection

Coffee pots by John Cony and Pygan Adams

Brazier by Edward Winslow

A rare piece of silverware — two-tined fork by John Noyes, first half of the eighteenth century

A brazier made by Jacob Hurd of Boston, showing exquisite workmanship. Clearwater Collection

Silver porringer made by Samuel Vernon of Newport, about 1725. Truax Collection

Silver sweetmeat box made by Winslow in 1702. Now owned by Mr. George S. Palmer, New London, Conn.

Ladle, dish, and sauce boat in the Bolles Collection of American pewter at the Metropolitan Museum

Pewter plates in the Bolles Collection

American pewter jugs. Bolles Collection

Pewter beakers. Bolles Collection

Jugs or flagons. Bolles Collection

Pepper shakers of American pewter. Bolles Collection

Five pewter porringers and a strainer. Bolles Collection

Early trefid spoon and five later ones. Bolles Collection

American pewter lamps. Bolles Collection

Eighteenth century pewter cider jug and whale-oil lamp. Bolles Collection

Two Pennsylvania German sgraffito plates made by David Spinner in 1801. Metropolitan Museum Collection

Pennsylvania German red clay slip-decorated ware, dated 1788, and bearing the peacock motif that was the favorite of Georg Hübener. It is a meat or vegetable dish, 14 inches in diameter, and a rare specimen. Owned by Mr. Renwick C. Hurry

Two sgraffito plates with the popular tulip motif, dated 1810 and 1818, Metropolitan Museum Collection

Porcelain vases, Sèvres style, probably made at the American China Manufactory in Philadelphia about 1833 — the first American porcelain. Hurry Collection

Christopher Webber Fenton

Alanson Lyman

A group of Bennington pottery in the Pitkin Collection at the Hartford Athenæum, showing Rockingham and parian ware, figures and pitchers. Here are the poodles, cow creamers, a toby, the exquisite figure in parian of the girl tying her shoe, and the famous hound-handled pitcher

Four of the types of Bennington pitchers from the collection of Mr. William A. Cahill, Hoosick Falls, N. Y. From left to right they are the branch-handled pitcher, a plain pattern in scroddled ware, the tulip pattern, and Greatbach's Bennington hound-handle

Hound-handled pitchers from the Jersey City or Trenton potteries, probably designed by Greatbach. Note the differences in the modeling of the head and forelegs of the Bennington hound above

The recumbent cow and two kinds of tobies. Owned by Mr. William A. Cahill

Pudding dish, coffee pot, and candlesticks in the collection of Bennington pottery at the Metropolitan Museum

Poodles and coachman bottle from Mr. Cahill's Collection. The white poodle is rare and valuable.

The Bennington deer, one of the most popular figures. From the collection of Elihu B. Taft, Esq., Burlington, Vt.

The Bennington cow creamer. Owned by Miss Mary H. Northend, Salem, Mass.

Examples of blue and white parian ware made at Bennington. From the collection of Mr. Charles S. Sherman, Glens Falls, N. Y.

White parian owned by Mr. Andrew B. Oatman, Bennington, Vt. The pitcher is the daisy pattern; the white swan is very rare

Seventeenth-century turned chair (Harvard chair) and oak wainscot chair

At the left, American Queen Anne fiddle-back chair, Dutch type, with Spanish feet, about 1710-20; right, a somewhat later style, with cabriole legs and ball-and-claw feet. Bolles Collection

At the left, Charles II or Restoration style, with Flemish feet, 1675-1700; center, the second stage, bannister-back with Spanish feet and Restoration features; right, third stage, with spindles rounded on the back. Metropolitan Museum

At the left, bannister-back armchair with spindles rounded on the back, Metropolitan Museum; right, bannister-back armchair with flat, grooved spindles, about 1740-50, owned by the author

Early slat-back armchair and later four-back chair. Metropolitan Museum

At the left, early roundabout with solid splats and Dutch feet, owned by the author; right, later roundabout, Chippendale style, in the Bolles Collection

American-made chairs of the Chippendale type, 1760-70

At the left, American chair of the Sheraton type, about 1800; right, "fancy" chair, early nineteenth century. Metropolitan Museum

The oak gate-leg table, of Jacobean origin, was popular in England and the Colonies during the last half of the seventeenth century. This one, a fine example of American workmanship, is in the Bolles Collection

An unusual form of tripod table with inlaid top; 1780-1800. Bolles Collection

A not ungraceful table of the Dutch type, American manufacture; 1750-75. Bolles Collection

American mahogany table with reeded legs, Sheraton style; about 1800. Owned by Mrs. W. A. Dyer

Types of early nineteenth-century American looking-glasses. Bolles Collection. The first two have gilt frames of Empire type, and the third is of flat mahogany

American glass cup plates, 1830 to 1850

Gen. Taylor flask, Dyottville works; Masonic flask by A. R. Samuels, and bottle by S. Huffsey; about 1850. Metropolitan Museum Collection

Eighteenth-century iron vessels from the Bolles Collection

Old Pennsylvania stove plates, owned by Mr. David B. Missemer

One form of the old Franklin stove. Owned by the author

American iron vessels, eighteenth century. Metropolitan Museum

An American hand-woven coverlet of the late eighteenth century. From the Metropolitan Museum Collection

A fashionable type of needlework. "Washington Memorial" embroidery, about 1800. Bolles Collection

American sampler, one of the less elaborate forms. Metropolitan Museum of Art


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