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ADELAIDE (South Australia). — Population, 163,430. Capital of South Australia and University town. The port is seven miles distant, on Gulf St. Vincent.

Exports: Wool, gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, wine, wheat, and tallow.

ADEN. — Population, 42,000. A bare, rocky peninsula, 75 miles square in extent. A strongly fortified coaling station on the Red Sea trade route. Non­productive, but carries on a great trade with Arabia. Aden and Perim are under the Bombay Government.

Exports: Coffee, ostrich feathers, tobacco, gum, and hides.

ALBANY (West Australia). — Population, 3,700. Prin­cipal port of West Australia. Naval base and coal­ing station.

Exports: Wool, timber, gold, pearls, and hides.

ALEXANDRIA. — Population, 320,000. Principal port of Egypt. Is well fortified and has two harbours, a breakwater 2 miles long, and a large floating dock. Consulate.

Exports: Cotton, cotton-seed, wheat, rice, onions and gum.

ALGIERS. — Population, 120,000. Has a harbour of 220 acres; two dry docks. Coaling station. Consulate.

Exports: Flour, metals, esparto grass, cork, and phosphates.

AMSTERDAM. — Population, 523,558. Once the first commercial city of the world; still remains a centre of great commercial activity. The town contains a Royal Palace of enormous size, and remarkable from the fact that it stands upon 13,659 piles driven 70 feet into the ground. Consulate.

ANTWERP. — Population, 262,255. One of the busiest seaports of the world, possessing wide thorough­fares and fine buildings. Very extensive quays. Consulate.

Exports: Grain, textiles, chemicals, resins, metals, wines.

ANTIGUA, see St. John's.

APIA (Samoa). — The residence of the Foreign Consuls in Samoa. Much resorted to by whalers. Has an open roadstead for harbour. Coaling station. Consulate.

ARGENTINA, see Buenos Ayres.

ASCENSION. — Population, about 400. An island in the South Atlantic, on the Cape route between Africa and South America. Coaling station, sanatorium, and Admiralty depôt. Strongly fortified.

ATHENS. — Population (including the port of Firmus) 179,755. Capital of Modern Greece. Contains the Royal Palace. The principal city lies 12 miles from the port, with Which it is connected by railway.

AUCKLAND (New Zealand). — Population, 67,226. Fortified coaling station, with one of the finest of harbours and two graving docks.

Exports: Gold, timber, gum, flax, wool, hides tallow.

AZORES (Dependencies of Portugal). — Population, 280,000. Consists of nine volcanic islands with an area of 700 square miles, called St. Michael, St. Mary, Tercera, Graciosa, St. George, Pico, Fayal, Corvo, Flores.

BAHAMAS, see Nassau.

BAHIA (Brazil). — Population, 200,000. The second sea­port of Brazil. Natural History Museum, Art Gallery, Public Library, Theological Seminary, Technical College, Ship Building Yards. Legation and Consulate.

Exports: Tobacco, sugar, coffee, feathers, rubber, coco nuts, tapioca, hides, fine woods, and diamonds.

BALTIMORE (U.S.). — Population, 508,957. A thriving city of some commercial importance; on Chesapeake Bay, 180 miles from the open sea, and mid­way between New York and Washington. From its situation on Chesapeake Bay, it is probably destined, as a grain-distributing centre, to secure pre-eminence among the ports of the U.S. Has a dry dock 600 feet long, and a Consulate.

Exports: Petroleum, grain, flour, and tobacco.

BANGKOK (Siam). — Population, 600,000, Chief seaport of Siam. Magnificent Royal Palace of King Chulalongkorn, and many fine pagodas. Legation.

Exports: Rice, ebony, fish, woods, gum, teak, pepper, ivory, and hides.

BARBADOS (West Indies). — Population, 182,286. An island about the size of Isle of Man, locally known as "Bimshire" or "Bims," and claiming to be "the most densely populated part of the habitable globe." Its chief town, Bridgetown, is the first port of call for Royal Mail Steamers outward bound.

Exports: Sugar, rum, and molasses.

BARCELONA (Spain). — Population, 510,000. The most important commercial centre of Spain. Fine harbour, floating dock. Consulate.

Exports: Cork, wines, fruits, lead, iron, silk, copper, and quicksilver.

BATAVIA (Dutch East Indies). — Population, 105,000. Capital of Java. Commercial emporium of the Dutch East Indies. Coaling station and Consulate. Magnificent museum.

Exports: Sugar, coffee, pepper, rice, sago, tin, tea, and tobacco.

BATOUM (Black Sea). — Population, 23,200. The centre of the corn and petroleum trade of Transcaucasia, Oil-refining works. Consulate.

Exports: Petroleum and petroleum products, manganese, walnut, and liquorice.

BEIRA (Portuguese East Africa). — Population, 4,055. Nearest port to Rhodesia, and Railway Terminus. Exports: Beeswax, ivory, and hides.

BELIZE (Honduras). — Population, 7,000. The chief town of British Honduras.

Exports: Mahogany, logwood, cedar, coconuts, sponges, and fruit.

BERGEN (Norway), — Population, 55,000. Important fortified city and seaport with fine harbour — deep, sheltered, but rocky. Fishing is the principal industry. Consular Agent. Cathedral, Museum and Naval Academy.

Exports: Codfish, herrings, skins, bones, horses, and sheep.

BERMUDAS (chief town, Hamilton).--Population, 1,296. Lie some 600 miles east from the coast of the U.S. Important naval base and naval dockyard.

Exports: Potatoes, tomatoes, beetroot, arrow­root, and onions.

BEYRUT (Syria), — Population, 100,000. The port of Damascus. Tideless harbour. Consulate. English and other Schools and Colleges. Small harbour and mole.

Exports: Silk, oils, wool, soap, lemons, oranges, madder, gums, gall, and cotton.

BILBAO (Spain). — Population, 50,800. Principal port in the north of Spain. Large deposits of iron ore in vicinity, much of which is exported to England. Consulate.

Exports: Iron ore, pig iron, fish, fruits, flour, and wine.

BOMBAY. — Population, 776,006. Capital of the Indian Presidency so-called. Built on three islands; magnificent natural harbour, and docks of over 200 acres. University. Chamber of Commerce.

Exports: Cotton, wheat, opium, indigo, rice, oil, seeds, etc.

BORDEAUX (France). — Population, 260,000. On the River Garonne, 55 miles from Bay of Biscay. Numerous docks and shipbuilding yards. The centre of the wine shipping trade. Consulate.

Exports: Wines, brandy, grain, fruit, seeds, tur­pentine, and wood.

BOSTON (U.S.). — Population, 500,000. Capital of State of Massachusetts. Outer and inner harbours , both excellent; railway termini, large trade with West Indies, Canada, and Newfoundland. Con­sulate.

Exports: Cattle, woollens, cottons, beef, pork, fish, ice, petroleum, and lard.

BOULOGNE-SUR-MER. — Population, 46,001. On the direct route between London and Paris, and within 3/ hours of both capitals. Deep-sea harbour, and wine port. Chief French fishing port. Consular Agent.

Exports: Cement, fruit, vegetables, fish, silks, wine, brandy, and eggs.

BREMEN (Germany). — Population, 227,832. One of the chief commercial ports of Germany, 50 miles from the North Sea, on the River Weser. Is one of the Free towns of the Hanseatic League, Hamburg and Lübeck being the other two. The port is Bremerhaven, 28 miles distant. Has large docks. Consular Agent.

Exports: Woollens, linens, toys, machinery, glass, iron, steel Ware, and beer.

BREST (France). — Population, 75,000 (1891). A sea­port of Brittany, on the Atlantic. Arsenal, Observatory, and chief station of the French Navy.

BRINDISI (Italy). — Population, 17,111. Starting-point of direct mail and passenger route from Europe to Egypt, Australia, and the East. Consulate.

Exports: Olive oil, wines, figs, almonds, oats, and linseed.

BRISBANE (Queensland). — Population, 1I9,428. Principal seaport and capital of Queensland. Govern­ment dock. Coaling station.

Exports: Wool, hides, ore, tallow, meat, and timber.

BUENOS AYRES (Argentina), — Population, 900,000. Capital of the Argentine Republic. On the Rio de la Plata, which is here 36 miles in width. Fine harbour works and docks.

Exports: Maize, wheat, flax, sheep, cattle, hides, and horns.

CALCUTTA. — Population, 1,026,987, the vast majority being Hindus, about half that number Mohammedans. Capital of Bengal Presidency. University. Cham­ber of Commerce. Observatory, Botanical Garden, and School of Art. Government dockyard.

CALLAO (Peru). — Population, 35,596. Principal sea­port of Peru.

Exports: Guano, silver ore, sugar, and salt. In 1746 it suffered from an earthquake in which 3,000 of the inhabitants perished.

CANARY ISLANDS, see Teneriffe.

CAPE TOWN. — Population, 167,200. Situated on Table Bay, and the principal seaport in South Africa, Extensive harbour works in process of con­struction. An Imperial Garrison, and station of the Cape and West African Squadron. Climate healthy and dry with uniform temperature.

CAPE VERDE, see St. Vincent.

CASTRIES or PORT ISLANDS, (St. Lucia, West Indies). — Population, 8,000. Situated on the largest and most picturesque of the Windward Islands, possessing one of the finest ports in the West Indies, and an important naval and coaling station.

CHARLESTOWN (U.S.). — Population 55,807. An im­portant southern city in the United States, with a great trade in cotton and lumber.

CHERBOURG (France). — Population, 31,100. A Naval Station on the English Channel, nearly opposite the Isle of Wight. Military port and commercial har­bour. Magnificent roadstead.

Exports: Agricultural produce, Macadam stone, etc.

CHILE, see Valparaiso.

CHRISTIANIA (Norway). — Population, 227,600. Capi­tal of Norway, on the Christiania Fiord.

Exports: Timber, Wood pulp, fish, paper, skins, minerals, ice, matches, condensed milk, margarine, and horse-shoe nails.

COLOMBO (Ceylon). — Population, 154,556. Capital of Ceylon (the population of which numbers 3,576,990, though the area is but 25,365 square miles).

Exports: Coffee, tea, cinchona, vanilla, carda­moms, cocoa, cinnamon, precious stones (rubies and cat's-eyes), and pearls.

COLON (Colombia, Central America). — Population, 5,000. The Atlantic port of the Isthmus of Panama, founded in 1849, at the commencement of the Panama (Inter-oceanic) Railway, which is 47 miles in length. Until 1896 a free port.

Exports: Bananas, india-rubber, live stock, cabinet woods, and medicinal plants.

CONSTANTINOPLE. — Population (1885), about 1,000,000. Capital and chief port of the Ottoman Empire, and residence of the Sultan. Possesses a magnificent harbour called the Golden Horn. Arsenal.

Exports: Tobacco, cereals, fruits, silk, oil-seeds, valonia, mohair, opium, gum, tragacanth, carpets, and wool.

COPENHAGEN. — Population, 408,300. The capital and principal port of Denmark.

DANTZIG (Germany). — Population, 140,539. A sea­port and fortress on the Vistula, near the Baltic Sea. Observatory. Its export trade has largely de­creased of late. Royal dockyard.

DOMINICA (B.W.I.), see Roseau.

DURBAN (South Africa). — Population, 48,410. Also called Port Natal. The only harbour of any import­ance on the South-east Coast of Africa. Possesses a railway to Pietermaritzburg, the capital of Natal.

Exports: Coffee, dye-stuffs, hides, and wool. The Colony is also rich in coal and iron.

GALVESTON (U.S.). — Population, 37,789. One of the principal cotton shipping ports on the Gulf of Mexico, and a great railway terminus of lines from the interior. Wrecked, a few years ago, by a tidal wave, which caused immense damage and loss of life.

GENOA (Italy), — Population, 237,486. On the Gulf of Genoa. Fortress, Archbishopric, numerous palaces and churches, University, and Botanical Gardens. Ample harbour.

Exports: Macaroni, vermicelli, oils, metals, arti­ficial flowers, etc.

GIBRALTAR. — Population, 20,355. A rocky promontory 3 miles in length by mile broad, and 1,439 feet high, connected with the mainland of Spain by a low isthmus. A free port: it enjoys an extensive shipping trade. Garrison, dockyard, and coaling station. In 1901 nearly 4,000 ships entered the port. Enclosed harbour and docks, to cost £4,000,000, now in course of construction, and further works under consideration.

GRENADA (Windward Islands, West Indies), see St. George's.

HALIFAX (Nova Scotia). — Population, 47,000. The capital of Nova Scotia. Terminus of the Inter­colonial Railway. Magnificent harbour, and prin­cipal Naval Station in North America. Apples, hay, coal, iron, and fisheries.

HAMBURG. — Population, 787,446. On the Elbe. The ocean port is Cuxhaven, 65 miles distant. Ham­burg shares with Bremen and Lübeck the major portion of Germany's fast increasing export trade, these three being known as the Free Hanse Towns, and retaining their own sovereignty.

HAVANA (Cuba). — Population, 250,000. The capital of Cuba, in the West Indies. The island which formed one of the chief causes of the Spanish-American War. Universally famed for its tobacco.

Exports: Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, sugar, coffee, and mahogany.

HAVRE (France). — Population, 119,470. Principal commercial port of Northern France, at the mouth of the Seine. Arsenal, Fortifications.

HAWAII, see Honolulu.

HOBART (Tasmania). — Population, 41,585. The capital of the Island, which contains 26,215 square miles. Mean annual temperature of 54 degrees rainfall, 20 inches.

HONDURAS, see Belize.

HONG KONG (the name of an island off China, of which the chief town is Victoria). — Population, 248,710. A Crown Colony, consisting of the Island of Hong Kong, and a portion of the main­land, which have been leased to Great Britain for ninety-nine years. Area, 252½ square miles. Fine harbour, excellent docks. Military and Naval Station.

Exports: Opium, tea, cotton, ivory, rice, woollens, silks, etc. White population, including garrison, about 14,000.

HONOLULU (Hawaii). — Population, about 30,000. Capital and chief port of the Sandwich Islands, on the south coast of Oaku. Natural harbour formed by a coral reef. Cable to San Francisco. Annexed by the United States in 1899.

JAFFA (Palestine) — the ancient Joppa. — Population, 16,000. The principal port of Palestine, in Syria, connected with Jerusalem by railway. No har­bour, and poor anchorage.

Exports: Oranges, olive oil, and sesame.

JAVA, see Batavia.

KINGSTON or KINGSTOWN (Jamaica). — The chief city of the British West Indian Island of Jamaica, which has a population of 745,104, and an area of 4,193 square miles. The seat of Government and largest port in the island, recently connected with Bristol by a direct line of steamers (Elder Dempster Line).

Exports: Bananas, sugar, molasses, pines, dye­stuffs, drugs and spices.

KINGSTOWN (St. Vincent, West Indies). — Population, 4,547. Has been a British possession since 1783. The scene of the terrible eruption of a volcano known as "La Soufrière," Which killed many hundreds of persons, and destroyed crops and buildings throughout a third of the island.

LEEWARD ISLANDS. — Antigua (with Barbuda and Redonda), St. Christopher (with Nevis and Anguilla), Dominica, Montserrat, and the Virgin Islands make up the West Indian Colony known as the Leeward Islands. Population, 127,723.

LISBON. — Population, 307,661. Capital and chief seaport of Portugal, on the River Tagus, 10 miles from the sea. Castle, Aqueduct, 64 Churches, Archbishopric.

MADAGASCAR, see Tamatave.

MADRAS. — Population 509,346. The chief city of the Presidency of that name. Possesses a large arti­ficial harbour. University. Chamber of Commerce.

MALAGA (Spain). — Population, 125,579. Capital of the Province of that name on the Mediterranean.

Chief export: A sweet wine.

MALTA, see Valetta.

MANILA (Philippines). — Population, 244,000. Capital of the Island of Luzon in the Philippine Islands, captured by the U.S. from Spain in the war of '98.

Exports: Hemp, sugar, coffee, indigo, copra, and tobacco.

MARSEILLES. — Population, 442,239. French seaport on the Mediterranean. Important port of call for steamers to the Far East, and the largest of all French ports.

MONTE VIDEO (Uruguay). — Population, 238,000. The capital of Uruguay, on the north shore of the Rio de la Plata. Possesses architecturally imposing and handsome buildings. It was once a Spanish possession, and the population includes a large pro­portion of Spaniards, Italians, and Frenchmen.

Exports: Beef, wool, hides, horns, hair, live stock, and skins.

MONTREAL (Canada). — Population, 216,651 (1891). On the River St. Lawrence. The commercial metropolis of the Dominion of Canada, and the centre of the grain export trade north of Newport.

MONTSERRAT, see Plymouth.

NAPLES. — Population, 544,057. Situated on the Gulf of Naples. Castle, Picture Galleries, Cathedral, University. It is the nearest regular port to Sicily, and Mount Vesuvius, with Herculaneum and Pompeii, are close by.

Exports: Wine, olive oil, chemicals, perfumery, hemp, and flax.

NASSAU (Bahamas). — The chief town of the Bahamas, situated upon an island called Providence, the group having remained a British possession since 1783.

Chief Exports: Sponges, fruits, bananas, coco­nuts, valuable woods, and fibre


NEWPORT NEWS (U.S.). — Population, 19,635. Both commercially and strategically an important Atlan­tic port. Ships large cargoes of beef and grain to Great Britain and the Continent.

NEW ORLEANS (U.S.). — Population, 287,104. The principal commercial port on the Gulf of Mexico. Originally a French settlement, it still retains much that is characteristic of the Gaul. Ships cotton to Manchester and Liverpool.

NEW YORK. — Population, 3,437,202. The commercial metropolis of the United States, and one of the largest and busiest ports of the world. By Railway from Chicago, twenty-six hours; from San Francisco and Pacific coast ports, four and a half days; from Washington, six hours, and from Montreal, twelve hours.

ODESSA (Russia). — Population, 338,000. A seaport on the Black Sea. Has three fine harbours, which are seldom frozen. The commercial and intellectual capital of the Province of Novorossoya. Population chiefly Russian, but contains large numbers of Jews, Roumanians, Slays, and Tartars.

Exports: Grain, flour, wool, hides, and cattle.

OPORTO (Portugal). — Population, 138,860. The sea­port of Portugal, which gave its name to the "port wines" of Douro. Bishopric, Cathedral, Opera, Library, Botanical Garden, Hospital. An artificial harbour has been built at Leixoes.

PALERMO (Sicily). — Population, 292,799. In the N.W. Province of Sicily. Fort, Archbishopric, Palaces, Castle, Cathedral, University, Botanical Garden, Mole and Light.

Exports: Oranges, lemons, grain, oil, wine, and sulphur.

PALESTINE, see Jaffa.

PANAMA, see Colon.

PARAMAIRIBO (Dutch Guiana). — Population, 28,000. The capital of Dutch Guiana, on the left bank of the Surinam, 20 miles from the sea.

Exports: Cocoa, sugar, gold, timber, balata, bananas, and coffee.

PERNAMBUCO (Brazil). — Population, 111,556. A sea­port of Brazil, situated on a sandy island lying near the mainland.

Exports: Sugar, cotton, coffee, tobacco, hides, dyewoods, etc.

PERU, see Callao.

PHILADELPHIA (U.S. ). — Population, 1,293,697. A growing port, both for commerce and passenger traffic, on the Atlantic sea-board. One of the oldest cities of the United States; founded by William Penn.

PHILIPPINES, see Manila.

PLYMOUTH (Montserrat, West Indies), — Population, 1,461. Has been a British possession since 1784.

Chief Exports: Limes and sugar.

PORT OF SPAIN (Trinidad). — Population, 54,000. One of the most prosperous towns in the West Indies. The capital and chief port of Trinidad, which is the most southerly of all the West India Islands, and is separated by a strait but 7 miles broad from Venezuela and the mainland of South America, of which it is thought to have formed once an integral part. Port of Spain is finely laid out, possessing an electric tramway and an excellent Botanical Garden. At La Brea is the celebrated Pitch Lake of Trinidad.

Exports: Sugar, rum, molasses, bitters, cocoa, and coconuts.

PORTLAND (U.S.). — Population, 50,145. Situated in the State of Maine. The most northerly trans­atlantic port of the United States. Terminus of the Canadian steamship lines when the Canadian ports are closed with ice.

PORTLAND (U.S.). — Population, 90,426. On the Columbia River in Oregon. The great grain-ship­ping port of the Pacific Coast. Headquarters of the Columbia River salmon-canning industry.

PORT SAID (Egypt), — Population, 42,000. At the Mediterranean entrance of the Suez Canal. It bears a sinister reputation.

QUEBEC. — Population, 68,824. The capital of the Province of that name in Canada, of which it is the great seaport, with a considerable export timber trade. Nearly a million tons of shipping cleared in 1900. The most characteristically " Old World " city on the American continent. On the Heights of Abram, in view of the St. Lawrence, is a monument erected in joint memory of the French and English who fell in the great battle between General Wolfe and Montcalm de Saint Veran, which, on September 14, 1759, decided Canada's future.

RANGOON (Burma). — Population, 234,881.

RIO DE JANEIRO (Brazil). — Population, 674,972. The chief seaport of Brazil, on a bay of the same name. Fine harbour, Fortifications.

Chief Export (forming nearly two-thirds of the total), coffee.

Other Exports are: tobacco, cotton, sugar, cocoa, india-rubber, maize, beans, cassava-root, and Brazil nuts.

ROSEAU (Dominica, Leeward Islands). — The port of Dominica, the "Pearl of the Lesser Antilles," an island famous as the home of the last of the Caribs, and also for its scenery, especially for its chief moun­tain, Morne Diablotin (5,000 feet), named from one of the rarest of birds, and its Boiling Lake, at which an English traveller with one or two native guides recently lost his life. The island, long under a cloud through mal-administration, is now making rapid progress, numerous European estates having been recently formed there.

Exports: Sugar and cane products, cocoa, and limes.

ROTTERDAM (Holland). — Population, 318,468. The largest commercial city and port in the Nether­lands; situated on the Maas, one of the outlets of the Rhine.

SAMOA, see Apia.

ST. GEORGE'S (Grenada, West Indies). — The chief town of Grenada, possessing a good harbour and a fort. The island was discovered by Columbus in 1498, and then named " Conception." It became a British possession in 1783. Next to Trinidad, it is one of the most prosperous of these islands, growing cocoa, spices, sugar, cotton, coffee, and fruit.

ST. JOHN (New Brunswick, Canada). — Population, 39,179. The principal seaport of New Brunswick, and the principal winter port of Canada, being free of ice usually throughout the year.

ST, JOHN'S (Antigua, West Indies). — Population, 9,262. Chief town of Antigua, settled by the British in 1632.

Exports: Sugar, rum, molasses.

ST. JOHN'S (Newfoundland). — Population, 31,142. The site of two Cathedrals, and the capital of the twelfth largest island in the world, lying six hours by steamer from the mainland.

Exports: Codfish, cod and seal oil, sealskins, tinned lobsters, copper and copper ore, and iron pyrites.

ST. LUCIA, see Castries.

ST. PETERSBURG. — Population, I,267,023. Capital of the Russian Empire, at the head of the Gulf of Finland, and at the mouth of the Neva, which is frozen over for about 150 days in the year. Winter Palace, the residence of the Emperor. Hermitage, Picture Gallery, Cathedral, Academies of Art and Science, Observatory and University. Its Library ranks next to the Bibliothèque Nationale and the British Museum. About 85 per cent. of the population belong to the Greek Church, the remaining 15 per cent. being divided between Protestants, Roman Catholics, and Jews.

ST. VINCENT (Cape Verde Islands). — Chief town and port of the Cape Verde Islands, which belong to Portugal, their area being 1,490 square miles, and population 111,000.

ST. VINCENT (Windward Islands), see Kingstown.

SAN DIEGO (U.S.). — Population, 17,700. The prin­cipal port of Southern California, a few miles from the Mexican border, and one of the finest harbours on the American continent.

SAN FRANCISCO. — Population, 342,782. The prin­cipal Pacific port on the North American continent, terminus of the trans-continental railways, and chief shipping port for China, Japan, the Philippines, and Australasia.

SAVANNAH (U.S.). — Population, 54,244. An import­ant cotton-shipping port and market on the Atlantic sea-board of the U.S. It has also a considerable export trade in lumber.

SCARBOROUGH (Tobago, West Indies). — Population, 1,370. Situated on the island of Tobago, about 18 miles N.E. of Trinidad, of which island it was con­stituted a ward in 1899. One of the healthiest islands in the West Indies.

Exports: Sugar and cane products.

SEATTLE (U.S.). — Population, 80,671. A thriving city on Puget Sound, and the chief point of embarkation for the Klondyke and the Gold Fields of Alaska.

SHANGHAI (S. China), — Population, 380,000, including 3,000 foreigners. Situated in the Province of Kiangsu, on the Yang-tse-kiang. It suffers greatly from heat in summer, and, generally speaking, is not over healthy, but in respect of the volume and value of its trade, it is without a rival among the Treaty Ports of China.

Exports: Silk, tea, raw cotton, paper, wheat, tobacco, wax, wool, skins and furs, straw and bristles.

SICILY, see Palermo.

SINGAPORE (Straits Settlements). — Population, 228,555. Founded by Sir Stamford Raffles in February, 1819. Situated upon a small island off the southern extremity of the Malay Peninsula. In respect of its shipping, it is one of the greatest ports of the world, and is well provided with docks, It is also of great strategical importance, and is well fortified, being frequently alluded to as the "Gibraltar of the East." The climate is healthy. It has a small Museum, and fine Botanical Gardens, in which there is a small Menagerie.

Chief Export: Tin.

STOCKHOLM (Sweden). — Population, 303,356. Capital of Sweden. National Museum, Academy of Science, of Fine Arts, and National Library. The Port, 40 miles from the open sea, has 5 miles of quays, but is often closed by ice three months in the year.

Exports: Cattle and butter, paper, matches, stone, iron, steel, oats, timber and wood products, zinc, and machinery. Average temperature, 41.7 degrees.

SUEZ (Egypt). — Population, 17,000. Situated on the Gulf of Suez. The southern terminus of the Suez Canal.

SYDNEY (New South Wales). — Population, 487,900. The capital of New South Wales, situated on the shores of the finest harbour in the world — Port Jackson. Royal Mint, University, Art Gallery, Library, Observatory, and two Cathedrals.

TAMATAVE (Madagascar). — The port of Madagascar, the fourth largest island in the world, with an area of 230,000 square miles, the capital of which is Tananarive. Madagascar became a French pos­session in 1896, the Malagasy Queen being deposed by a French military expedition, which suffered considerable losses.

Exports: Cattle, hides, india-rubber, gum-copal, wax, sugar, coffee, and rice.

TENERIFFE (Canary Islands). — Chief port and capital of the Canary Islands, which belong to Spain, their area being 3,000 square miles, and population 300,000.

TOBAGO, see Scarborough.

TOULON (France), — Population, 80,000. French Naval station, on the Mediterranean. Strongly Fortified Military Station, Magazines, Arsenals, and Naval Hospital. Observatory.

Exports: Wine, brandy, olive oil, and fruits.

TRIESTE (Austria). — Population, 158,344. The principal seaport of Austria, at the N.E. extremity of the Adriatic.

Exports: Corn, rice, wine, oil, sumach, tobacco, hemp, wool, skins, and timber. Trieste has steam­ship communication with the Black Sea, Turkey, Egypt, India, and China.

TRINIDAD, see Port of Spain.

TUNIS (Barbary, N. Africa). — Population, 153,000. An inland port near the site of Ancient Carthage, and connected by canal with the Mediterranean. The capital and commercial emporium of Barbary. Under French protection. Fortifications. The population consists of: Turks, Moors, Jews, Arabs, Kabyles, and Christians.

Exports: Grain, wool, oil, and esparto grass. Its chief manufactures are silk and woollen stuffs, car­pets, shawls, mantles, fezzes, burnouses; also otto of roses and jessamine.

URUGUAY, see Monte Video.

VALETTA (Malta). — Population, 60,763. Fine har­bour, and the most important British port of call in the Mediterranean. Extensive arsenal and dock­yards


VALPARAISO (Chile). — Population, 143,000. Chief seaport of Chile. Arsenal, shipbuilding yard, and Naval College.

Exports: Nitrate of soda, iodine, gold, copper, silver, iron and coal, skins, wheat, flour, and guano.

VANCOUVER (British Columbia). — Population, 30,000. Eighty miles from Victoria, the most important centre of commerce on the Pacific Coast of British North America, the western terminus of the Cana­dian Pacific Railway, and the point of departure for Japan and the Far East.

VENICE. — Population, 157,785. A fortified city and port of Italy, built upon 120 islands connected by nearly 500 bridges. Formerly one of the most im­portant commercial and maritime cities of the world. Her trade is now outstripped by that of Trieste, and her commercial supremacy seems to have gone the way of the Campanile of St. Mark's.

VERA CRUZ (Mexico). — Population, 24,000 (1889), The chief seaport of Mexico.

Exports: Silver and gold, flax and hemp, tobacco, cochineal, sugar, indigo, drugs, vanilla, logwood, timber, hides, and skins.

VLADIVOSTOCK. — Population, 14,900 (chiefly Mili­tary, 1891). The chief Naval station of Russia, on the Pacific. A great Naval and Military base, and terminus of the Siberian Railway.

WINDWARD ISLANDS. — These include Barbados, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, and the Grenadines. Barbados (v. Bridgetown), though included in the list, is a separate colony.

YOKOHAMA (Japan). — Population, 193,762. An "open" seaport of Japan. Government dry docks; sheltered harbour.

Exports: Silk, rice, tea, fish, copper, coal, matches, camphor, straw plaits, and marine pro­ducts

[By kind permission, from Lloyd's Calendar.]

1492 America discovered.
1508 First Marine Insurance in England.
1545 First Treatise on Navigation issued.
1550 Sextant invented.
1642  New Zealand discovered.
1666 Fire of London.
1688 First notice of Lloyd's Coffee House in Tower Street.
1694 Bank of England founded.
1700  First Dock opened in Liverpool.
1704  Gibraltar taken by the English.
1707  Union of England and Scotland.
1709 First London Daily Paper.
1714  First Steam Engine built.
1758 First English Canal.
1767  Nautical Almanac published.
1768 Capt. Cook's first voyage.
1786  Shipping first registered in the River Thames, and throughout the Empire in 1787.
           Board of Trade constituted.
 London Times established.
           First Settlement in Australia.
1790 Lifeboat first used at South Shields.
1799  H.M.S. Lutine wrecked.
1801  Union of Great Britain and Ireland.
1802  West India Docks opened.
1805 London Docks opened.
1806  East India Docks opened.
1807 Gas first used in London.
1812  First steamboat (Comet) on the Clyde.
1815  First Steam Vessel on the Thames.
1817  Present Custom House opened in London.
1818  First Steamer crossed the Atlantic.
1824  National Lifeboat Institution established.
1825  First steam voyage to India.
1828  St. Katherine's Docks opened.
1831  New London Bridge opened.
1833  Trade with India thrown open.
1838  First regular steamboat service across Atlantic; voyage 17 days.
1840 First Cunard Steamer Britannia sailed.
           P. & O. Steam Navigation Company opened.
           Penny Post introduced.
1843 Iron Steamships first built in Great Britain.
           Thames Tunnel opened.
1845  Penny Steamers commenced.
1847  Gold discovered in California.
1848  North-West Passage discovered.
1850  Inman Company established.
1851  First Submarine Telegraph.
1858  Great Eastern Steamer launched.
           First message by Atlantic cable.
1860  First Steam Ironclad launched.
1863 Twin screws first used.
1866  Atlantic cable laid by Great Eastern.
1869 Suez Canal opened.
1870  Telegraphs transferred to Government.
1880 Royal Albert Docks opened.
1882  New Eddystone Lighthouse opened.
1886 Tilbury Docks opened.
1887  Jubilee of Queen Victoria.
1890 Forth Bridge opened.
1893  Corinth Ship Canal opened.
1894  Tower Bridge opened.
           Manchester Ship Canal opened.
1895 Southampton Graving Dock opened.
           Kaiser Wilhelm Canal opened.
1896 New Docks inaugurated at Cuxhaven.
1897 Blackwall Tunnel opened.
           War between Greece and Turkey.
1898 War between United States and Spain.
           Imperial Penny Postage instituted.
1899 Launch of steamship Oceanic.
1900 British Pacific cable authorised.
           Merchant Shipping (Liability of Shipowners) Act passed.
           Subsidised Steamship Service with Jamaica arranged.
1901  Commonwealth of Australia established.
           Death of Queen Victoria.
           Accession of King Edward VII.
           International Exhibition at Glasgow.
           Royal tour of the Empire.
1902 Atlantic (Morgan) Steamship Trust formed.
           First successes with Trans-Atlantic Wireless Telegraphy (Marconi).
           Introduction of Wireless Telegraphy into the Navy.
           End of South African War.
           Treaty of Alliance with Japan.
           Report of Royal Commission on the Port of London issued.
           Volcanic Eruption at Martinique and St. Vincent.
           Successful trials of British Submarines.
1903  Reform of Naval Education.

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