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This plate was planned especially for arithmetic lessons, as it shows in the sketches the various processes through which the cotton passes before reaching the retailer, thus suggesting a number of practical problems. It may be used quite as well in geography, history, and nature study.

Spot 1 is produced by massing a bit of chalk and then rubbing it into the desired shape by the use of the finger tip. The pod is drawn with a short stick of charcoal, used in the same man­ner as the chalk.

No. 2 shows the stroke for the sky and horizon, and has already been described in many other lessons.

To produce the effect shown at No. 3 use the side of a short piece of chalk, and with a rather irregular stroke draw the twigs and stems. Accent the spots for the cotton balls.

In the other small sketches the strokes are so evident that they hardly need description. A white, smooth sky, erased where the mills and chimneys appear, will produce the effect in the lowest drawing. A little charcoal may be added for the darkest tones, a stroke of the eraser for the smoke, and little touches of chalk for the windows.

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