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OIL of lavender two drachms, oil of rosemary one drachm and a half, orange, lemon and bergamot, one drachm each of the oil; also two drachms of the essence of musk, attar of rose ten drops, and a pint of proof spirit. Shake all together thoroughly three times a day for a week.
Mix one pint extract of rose, one pint extract of tuberose, half a pint of extract of cassia, four ounces extract of jasmine, and three ounces tincture of civet. Filter the mixture.
PREFERABLE to the distilled for a perfume, or for culinary purposes. Attar of rose, twelve drops; rub it up with half an ounce of white sugar and two drachms carbonate magnesia; then add gradually one quart of water and two ounces of proof spirit, and filter through paper.
FRENCH proof spirit one gallon, extract bay six ounces. Mix and color with caramel; needs no filtering.
OIL of lavender two ounces, orris root half an ounce, spirits of wine one pint. Mix and keep two or three weeks. It may then be strained through two thicknesses of blotting-paper and is ready for use.
BEST white castor oil; pour in a little strong solution of sal tartar in water, and shake it until it looks thick and white. Perfume with lavender.
OLIVE oil one pound, attar of roses fifty drops, oil of rosemary twenty-five drops; mix, and color it with alkanet root.
MELT one ounce oil of almonds, half ounce spermaceti, one drachm white wax, and then add two ounces of rose-water, and stir it constantly until cold.
MELT one ounce white wax, one ounce sweet oil, one drachm spermaceti, and throw in a piece of alkanet root to color it, and when cooling, perfume it with oil rose, and then pour it into small white jars or boxes.
TAKE glycerine four ounces, tincture of cantharides five ounces, bay rum four ounces, water two ounces. Mix, and apply once a day and rub well down the scalp.
BAY rum two pints, alcohol one pint, castor oil one ounce, carb. ammonia half an ounce, tincture of cantharides one ounce. Mix them well. This compound will promote the growth of the hair and prevent it from falling out.
OIL FOR THE HAIR.
RENOWNED for the past fifty years, is as follows: Take a quarter of an ounce of the chippings of alkanet root, tie this in a bit of coarse muslin and put it in a bottle containing eight ounces of sweet oil; cover it to keep out the dust; let it stand several days; add to this sixty drops of tincture of cantharides, ten drops of oil of rose, neroli and lemon each sixty drops; let it stand one week and you will have one of the most powerful stimulants for the growth of the hair ever known.
Another: To a pint of strong sage tea, a pint of bay rum and a quarter of an ounce of the tincture of cantharides, add an ounce of castor oil and a teaspoonful of rose, or other perfume. Shake well before applying to the hair, as the oil will not mix.
PHALON'S INSTANTANEOUS HAIR DYE.
TO ONE ounce of crystallized nitrate of silver, dissolved in one ounce of concentrated aqua ammonia, add one ounce of gum arabic and six ounces of soft water. Keep in the dark. Remember to remove all grease from the hair before applying the dye.
There is danger in some of the patent hair dyes, and hence the Scientific American offers what is known as the walnut hair dye. The simplest form is the expressed juice of the bark or shell of green walnuts. To preserve the juice a little alcohol is commonly added to it with a few bruised cloves, and the whole digested together, with occasional agitation, for a week or fortnight, when the clear portion is decanted, and, if necessary, filtered. Sometimes a little common salt is added with the same intention. It should be kept in a cool place. The most convenient way of application is by means of a sponge.
FOR WHITE OR LIGHT EYEBROWS.
BOIL an ounce of walnut bark in a pint of water for an hour. Add a lump of alum the size of a filbert, and when cold, apply with a camels-hair brush.
ONE penny's worth of borax, half a pint of olive oil, one pint of boiling water. Pour the boiling water over the borax and oil; let it cool; then put the mixture into a bottle. Shake it before using, and apply it with a flannel. Camphor and borax, dissolved in boiling water and left to cool, make a very good wash for the hair; as also does rosemary water mixed with a little borax. After using any of these washes, when the hair becomes thoroughly dry, a little pomatum or oil should be rubbed in to make it smooth and glossy that is, if one prefers oil on the hair.
FOR THE HAIR.
ONE marrow bone, half a pint of oil, ten cents' worth of citronella. Take the marrow out of the bone, place it in warm water, let it get almost to boiling point, then let it cool and pour the water away; repeat this three times until the marrow is thoroughly "fined." Beat the marrow to a cream with a silver fork, stir the oil in, drop by drop, beating all the time; when quite cold add the citronella, pour into jars and cover down.
INCREASE THE HAIR IN THE BROWS.
CLIP them and anoint with a little sweet oil. Should the hair fall out, having been full, use one of the hair invigorators.
TO ONE quart of rose-water add an ounce and a half of gum tragacanth; let it stand forty-eight hours, frequently straining it, then strain through a coarse linen cloth; let it stand two days, and again strain; add to it a drachm of oil of roses. Used by ladies dressing their hair, to make it lie in any position.
PUT in a vial one drachm of benzoin gum in powder, one drachm nutmeg oil, six drops of orange-blossom tea, or apple blossoms put in half pint of rain-water and boiled down to one teaspoonful and strained, one pint of sherry wine. Bathe the face morning and night; will remove all flesh-worms and freckles, and give a beautiful complexion. Or, put one ounce of powdered gum of benzoin in a pint of whisky; to use, put in water in wash-bowl till it is milky, allowing it to dry without wiping. This is perfectly harmless.
Cream cures sun-burn on some complexions, lemon juice is best on others, and cold water suits still others best.
CELEBRATED POWDER FOR THE FACE.
FIVE cents' worth of bay rum, five cents' worth of magnesia snowflake, five cents' worth of bergamot, five cents ' worth of oil of lemon; mix in a pint bottle and fill up with rain-water. Shake well, and apply with a soft sponge or cloth.
OR FACE POWDER.
TAKE a quarter of a pound of wheat starch pounded fine; sift it through a fine sieve, or a piece of lace; add to it eight drops of oil of rose, oil of lemon thirty drops, oil of bergamot fifteen drops. Rub thoroughly together.
The French throw this powder into alcohol, shaking it, letting it settle, then pouring off the alcohol and drying the powder. In that case, the perfume is added lastly.
THE following lotion is highly recommended: One ounce of lemon juice, a quarter of a drachm of powdered borax, and half a drachm of sugar; mix in a bottle, and allow them to stand a few days, when the liquor should be rubbed occasionally on the hands and face. Another application is: Friar's balsam one part, rose-water twenty parts.
Powdered nitre moistened with water and applied to the face night and morning, is said to remove freckles without injury to the skin.
Also, a tablespoonful of freshly grated horse-radish, stirred into a cupful of sour milk; let it stand for twelve hours, then strain and apply often. This bleaches the complexion also, and takes off tan.
REMOVE MOTH PATCHES.
INTO a pint of rum put a tablespoonful of flour of sulphur. Apply this to the patches once a day, and they will disappear in two or three weeks.
ONE teaspoonful of carbolic acid and one pint of rose-water mixed is an excellent remedy for pimples. Bathe the skin thoroughly and often, but do not let the wash get into the eyes.
This wash is soothing to mosquito bites, and irritations of the skin of every nature.
It is advisable, in order to clear the complexion permanently, to cleanse the blood; then the wash would be of advantage.
To obtain a good complexion, a person's diet should receive the first attention. Greasy food, highly spiced soups, hot bread and butter, meats or game, rich gravies, alcoholic liquors, coffee all are injurious to the complexion. Strong tea used daily will after a time give the skin the color and appearance of leather. Coffee affects the nerves more, but the skin less, and a healthy nervous system is necessary to beauty. Eating between meals, late suppers, over-eating at meals, eating sweetmeats, candies, etc., all these tend to disorder the blood, producing pimples and blotches.
Washing of the face or skin is another consideration for a good complexion; it should be thoroughly washed in plenty of luke-warm water with some mild soap then rinsed in clear water well; dry with a thick soft towel. If suds is left or wiped off the skin, the action of the air and sun will tan the surface, and permanently clef ace the complexion; therefore one should be sure to thoroughly rinse off all soap from the skin to avoid the tanning, which will leave a brown or yellow tinge impossible to efface.
POWDERED carbonate of ammonia one ounce, strong solution of ammonia half a fluid ounce, oil of rosemary ten drops, oil of bergamot ten drops. Mix, and while moist put in wide-mouthed bottle which is to be well closed.
PREPARED chalk half a pound, powdered myrrh two ounces; camphor two drachms, orris root, powdered, two ounces; moisten the camphor with alcohol and mix well together.
TARTAR FROM THE TEETH.
THIS preparation is used by dentists. Pure muriatic acid one ounce, water one ounce, honey two ounces, mix thoroughly. Take a tooth-brush, and wet it freely with this preparation, and briskly rub the black teeth, and in a moment's time they will be perfectly white; then immediately wash out the mouth well with water, that the acid may not act on the enamel of the teeth. This should be done only occasionally.
BAD breath from catarrh, foul stomach, or bad teeth, may be temporarily relieved by diluting a little bromo chloralum with eight or ten parts of water, and using it as a gargle, and swallowing a few drops before going out. A pint of bromo chloralum costs fifty cents, but a small vial will last a long time.
HALF a pound of plain, white soap, dissolved in a small quantity of alcohol, as little as can be used; add a tablespoonful of pulverized borax. Shave the soap and put it in a small tin basin or cup; place it on the fire in a dish of boiling water; when melted, add the alcohol, and remove from the fire; stir in oil of bergamot sufficient to perfume it.
DISSOLVE half an ounce of carbonate of ammonia and one ounce of borax in one quart of water; then add two ounces of glycerine in three quarts of New England rum, and one quart of bay rum. Moisten the hair with this liquid; shampoo with the hands until a light lather is formed; then wash off with plenty of clean water.
WET the strop with a little sweet oil, and apply a little flour of emery evenly over the surface.
MELT together over a water bath white wax and spermaceti each one ounce, camphor two ounces, sweet almond oil, one pound, then triturate until the mixture has become homogeneous, and allow one pound of rose-water to flow in slowly during the operation. Excellent for chapped lips or hands.
OR SWEET-SCENTING BAGS.
LAVENDER flowers one ounce, pulverized orris, two drachms, bruised rosemary leaves half ounce, musk five grains, attar of rose five drops. Mix well, sew up in small flat muslin bags, and cover them with fancy silk or satin.
These are very nice to keep in your bureau drawers or trunk, as the perfume penetrates through the contents of the trunk or drawers. An acceptable present to a single gentleman.
TO KEEP BRUSHES CLEAN.
THE best way in which to clean hair-brushes is with spirits of ammonia, as its effect is immediate. No rubbing is required, and cold water can be used just as successfully as warm. Take a tablespoonful of ammo-ma, to a quart of water, dip the hair part of the brush without wetting the ivory, and in a moment the grease is removed; then rinse in cold water, shake well, and dry in the air, but not in the sun. Soda and soap soften the bristles and invariably turn the ivory yellow.
MUTTON tallow is considered excellent to soften the hands. It may be rubbed on at any time when the hands are perfectly dry, but the best time is when retiring, and an old pair of soft, large gloves thoroughly covered on the inside with the tallow and glycerine in equal parts, melted together, can be worn during the night with the most satisfactory results.
Four parts of glycerine and five parts of yolks of eggs thoroughly mixed, and applied after washing the hands, is also considered excellent.
For chapped hands or face: One ounce of glycerine, one ounce of alcohol mixed, then add eight ounces of rose-water.
Another good rule is to rub well in dry oatmeal after every washing, and be particular regarding the quality of soap. Cheap soap and hard water are the unknown enemies of many people, and the cause of rough skin and chapped hands. Castile soap and rain-water will sometimes cure without any other assistance.
Camphor ice is also excellent, and can be applied with but little inconvenience. Borax dissolved and added to the toilet water is also good.
For chapped lips, beeswax dissolved in a small quantity of sweet oil, by heating carefully. Apply the salve two or three times a clay, and avoid wetting the lips as much as possible.
To soften the hands: One can have the hands in soap-suds with soft soap without injury to the skin if the hands are dipped in vinegar or lemon juice immediately after. The acids destroy the corrosive effects of the alkali, and make the hands soft and white. Indian meal and vinegar or lemon juice used on hands where roughened by cold or labor will heal and soften them. Rub the hands in this, then wash off thoroughly and rub in glycerine, Those who suffer from chapped hands will find this comforting.
To remove stains, rub a slice of raw potato upon the stains; or wash the hands in lemon juice or steeped laurel-leaves.
To give a fine color to the nails, the hands and fingers must be well lathered and washed with fine soap; then the nails must be rubbed with equal parts of cinnebar and emery, followed by oil of bitter almonds. To take white spots from the nails, melt equal parts of pitch and turpentine in a small cup; add to it vinegar and powdered sulphur. Rub this on the nails and the spots will soon disappear.
ONE pound of washing soda, one pound of lard or clear tallow, half a pound of unslaked lime, one tablespoonful of salt, three quarts of water. Put the soda and lime in a large dish, and pour over the water, boiling hot; stir until dissolved; let it stand until clear, then pour off the clear liquid, add the grease and salt; boil four hours, then pour into pans to cool. If it should be inclined to curdle or separate, indicating the lime to be too strong, pour in a little more water, and boil again. Perfume as you please, and pour into molds a shallow dish, and, when cold, cut into bars to dry.
THE following list gives some of the more common poisons and the remedies most likely to be on hand in case of need:
Acids: These cause great heat and sensation of burning pain from the mouth down to the stomach. The remedies are: Magnesia, soda, pearl ash, or soap dissolved in water, every two minutes; then use the stomach pump, or an emetic.
Alkali: Drink freely of water with vinegar or lemon juice in it, made very strong of the sour.
Ammonia: Remedy is lemon juice or vinegar.
Arsenic Remedies: Give prompt emetic of mustard and salt, a tablespoonful of each, in a coffeecup of warm water; then follow with sweet oil, butter made warm, or milk. Also may use the white of an egg in half a cupful of milk or lime water. Chalk and water is good, and the preparation of iron, ten drops in water every half hour; hydrated magnesia.
Alcohol: First cleanse out the stomach by an emetic, then dash cold water on the head, and give ammonia (spirits of hartshorn).
Laudanum, Morphine, Opium: First give a strong emetic of mustard and water, then very strong coffee and acid drinks; dash cold water on the head, then keep in motion.
Belladonna: Give an emetic of mustard, salt and water; then drink plenty of vinegar and water or lemonade.
Charcoal: In poisons, by carbonic gas, remove the patient to the open air, dash cold water on the head and body, and stimulate the nostrils and lungs with hartshorn, at the same time rubbing the chest briskly.
Corrosive Sublimate, Saltpetre, Blue Vitriol, Bed-bug Poison: Give white of egg, freshly mixed with water, in large quantities; or give wheat flour and water, or soap and water freely, or salt and water, or large draughts of milk.
Lead: White lead and sugar of lead. Give an emetic, then follow with cathartics, such as castor oil, and epsom salts especially.
Nux Vomica: First emetics, and then brandy.
Oxalic Acid (frequently taken for epsom salts): First give soap and water, or chalk or magnesia and water. Give every two minutes.
White Vitriol: Give plenty of milk and water.
Tartar Emetic: Take large doses of tea made of white oak bark, or Peruvian bark. Drink plenty of warm water to encourage vomiting; then, if the vomiting should not stop, give a grain of opium in water.
Nitrate of Silver (lunar caustic): Give a strong solution of common salt and water, and then an emetic.
Verdigris: Give plenty of white of egg and water.
Tobacco: Emetics, frequent draughts of cold water; camphor and brandy.
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FRENCH WORDS IN COOKING.
Aspic: Savory jelly for cold dishes.
Au gratin: Dishes prepared with sauce and crumbs and baked.
Bouchees: Very thin patties or cakes, as name indicates. mouthfuls.
Baba: A peculiar, sweet French yeast cake.
Bechamel: A rich, white sauce made with stock.
Bisque: A white soup made of shell fish.
To Blanch: To place any article on the fire till it boils, then plunge it in cold water; to whiten poultry, vegetables, etc. To remove the skin by immersing in boiling water.
Bouillon: A clear soup, stronger than broth, yet not so strong as consommι, which is "reduced" soup.
Braise: Meat cooked in a closely covered stewpan, so that it retains its own flavor and those of the vegetables and flavorings put with it.
Brioche: A very rich, unsweetened French cake made with yeast.
Cannelon: Stuffed rolled-up meat.
Clear soup or bouillon boiled down till very rich,
Croquettes: A savory mince of fish or fowl, made with sauce into shapes, and fried.
Croustades: Fried forms of bread to serve minces or other meats upon.
Entree: A small dish, usually served between the courses at dinner.
Fondue: A light preparation of melted cheese.
Fondant: Sugar boiled and beaten to a creamy paste.
Hollandaise Sauce: A rich sauce, something like hot mayonnaise.
Matelote: A rich fish stew, with wine.
Mayonnaise: A rich salad dressing.
Meringue: Sugar and white of egg beaten to sauce.
Marinade: A liquor of spices, vinegar, etc., in which fish or meats are steeped before cooking.
Miroton: Cold meat warmed in various ways, and dished in circular form.
Purse: This name is given to very thick soups, the ingredients for thickening which have been rubbed through a sieve.
Poulette Sauce: A bιchamel sauce, to which white wine and sometimes eggs are added.
Ragout: A rich, brown stew, with mushrooms, vegetables, etc.
Piquante: A sauce of several flavors, acid predominating.
Quenelles: Forcemeat with bread, yolks of eggs highly seasoned, and formed with a spoon to an oval shape; then poached and used either as a dish by themselves, or to garnish.
Remoulade: A salad dressing differing from mayonnaise, in that the eggs are hard boiled and rubbed in a mortar with mustard, herbs, etc.
Rissole: Rich mince of meat or fish rolled in thin pastry and fried.
Roux: A cooked mixture of butter and flour, for thickening soups and stews.
Salmi: A rich stew of game, cut up and dressed, when half roasted.
Sauter: To toss meat, etc., over the fire, in a little fat.
Soufflι: A very light, much whipped-up pudding or omelette.
Timbale: A sort of pie in a mold.
Vol au vents: Patties of very light puff paste, made without a dish or mold, and filled with meat or preserves, etc.
Catherine Qwen, in Good Housekeeping.
REQUIRED FOR THE KITCHEN.
THE following list will show what articles are necessary for the kitchen, and will be quite an aid to young housekeepers when about commencing to furnish the utensils needed in the kitchen department, and may prove useful to many.
2 Sweeping brooms and 1 dust-pan.
1 Whisk broom.
1 Bread box.
2 Cake boxes.
1 Large flour box. 1 Dredging box.
3 Large-sized tin pepper box.
1 Spice box containing smaller spice boxes.
2 Cake pans, two sizes.
4 Bread pans.
2 Square biscuit pans. 1 Apple corer.
1 Lemon squeezer. 1 Meat cleaver.
3 Kitchen knives and forks.
1 Large kitchen fork and 4 kitchen spoons, two sizes.
1 Wooden spoon for cake making.
1 Large bread knife.
1 Griddle cake turner, also 1 griddle.
1 Potato masher.
1 Meat board.
1 Dozen patty pans, and the same number of tartlet pans.
1 Large tin pail and 1 wooden pail.
2 Small tin pails.
1 Set of tin basins.
1 Set of tin measures.
1 Wooden butter ladle.
1 Tin skimmer.
1 Tin steamer.
2 Dippers, two sizes.
2 Funnels, two sizes.
1 Set of jelly cake tins.
4 Pie pans.
3 Pudding molds, one for boiling, two for baking, two sizes.
2 Dish pans, two sizes.
2 Cake or biscuit cutters, two sizes.
2 Graters, one large and one small.
1 Coffee canister.
1 Tea canister.
1 Tin or granite-ware teapot.
1 Tin or granite-ware coffeepot.
4 Milk pans, 1 milk strainer.
1 Dozen iron gem pans or muffin rings.
1 Coarse gravy strainer, 1 fine strainer.
1 Flour sifter.
2 Scoops, one for flour, one for sugar.
2 Jelly molds, two sizes.
1 Can opener, 1 egg beater.
1 Cork screw.
2 Wooden chopping-bowls, two sizes.
1 Meat saw.
2 Large earthen bowls.
4 Stone jars.
1 Coffee mill.
2 Market baskets, two sizes.
1 Ash bucket.
2 Frying pans or spiders, two sizes.
4 Flat-irons, 2 number 8 and 2 number 6.
2 Dripping pans, two sizes.
3 Iron kettles, porcelain lined if possible.
1 Corn beef or fish kettle.
2 Granite-ware stewpans, two sizes.
1 Wire toaster.
1 Double kettle for cooking custards, grains, etc.
2 Sugar boxes, one for coarse and one for fine sugar.
1 Waffle iron.
1 Step ladder.
1 Stove, 1 coal shovel.
1 Pair of scales.
2 Coal hods or buckets.
1 Kitchen table, 2 kitchen chairs.
1 Large clothes basket.
1 Wash boiler, 1 wash board.
8 Dozen clothes pins.
1 Large nail hammer and one small tack hammer.
1 Bean pot.
1 Clothes wringer.
An ingenious housewife will manage to do with less conveniences, but these articles, if they can be purchased in the commencement of housekeeping, will save time and labor, making the preparation of food more easy and it is always economy in the end to get the best material in all wares, as, for instance, the double plate tin will last for years, whereas the poor kind has to be replaced in a short time; the low-priced earthenware is soon broken up, whereas the strong stoneware, costing but a trifle more, lasts almost a lifetime.
In relation to the economy and management of the kitchen, I might suggest that the most essential thing is cleanliness in cooking, and also cleanliness with your person as well as in the keeping of the kitchen.
The hands of the cook should be always thoroughly cleansed before touching or handling anything pertaining to the cooking. Next there should never be anything wasted or thrown away that can be turned to account, either for your own family or some family in poor circumstances. Bread that has become hard can be used for toasting, or for stuffing and pudding. In warm weather any gravies or soups that are left from the preceding day should be boiled up and poured into clean pans. This is particularly necessary where vegetables have been added to the preparation, as it then so soon turns sour. In cooler weather, every other day will be often enough to warm up these things.
In cooking, clear as you go; that is to say, do not allow a host of basins, plates, spoons, and other utensils, to accumulate on the dressers and tables whilst you are engaged in preparing the dinner. By a little management and forethought, much confusion may be saved in this way. It is as easy to put a thing in its place when it is done with, as it is to keep continually moving it to find room for fresh requisites. For instance, after making a pudding, the flour-tub, paste-board, and rolling-pin, should be put away, and any basins, spoons, etc., should be neatly packed up near the sink, to be washed when the proper time arrives. Neatness, order and method should be always observed.
Never let your stock of spices, salt, seasoning, herbs, etc., dwindle down so low that some day, in the midst of preparing a large dinner, you find yourself minus a very important ingredient, thereby causing much confusion and annoyance.
After you have washed your saucepans, fish-kettle, etc., stand them before the fire for a few minutes to get thoroughly dry inside, before putting them away. They should then be kept in a dry place, in order that they may escape the deteriorating influence of rust, and thereby be quickly destroyed. Never leave saucepans dirty from one day's use to be cleaned the next; it is slovenly and untidy.
Do not be afraid of hot water in washing up dishes and dirty cooking utensils. As these are essentially greasy, luke-warm water cannot possibly have the effect of cleansing them effectually. Do not be chary also of changing and renewing the water occasionally. You will thus save yourself much time and labor in the long run.
Keep a cake of sapolio always on hand in the kitchen always convenient for rubbing off stains from earthen-ware, tin, glass, in fact, almost everything but silver; it is a cheap and valuable article, and can be purchased at nearly every grocery in the United States.
DYEING OR COLORING.
EVERYTHING should be clean. The goods should be scoured in soap and the soap rinsed out. They are often steeped in soap lye over night. Dip them into water just before putting them into preparations, to prevent spotting. Soft water should be used, sufficient to cover the goods well; this is always understood where quantity is not mentioned. When goods are dyed, air them; then rinse well, and hang up to dry. Do not wring silk or merino dresses when scouring or dyeing them. If cotton goods are to be dyed a light color, they should first be bleached.
Black: Make a weak lye as for black or woolens; work goods in bichromate of potash a little below boiling heat, then dip in the logwood in the same way; if colored in blue vitriol dye, use about the same heat.
Orange: For one pound goods, annotto one pound, soda one pound; repeat as desired.
Green Very Handsome: For one pound goods, yellow oak bark eight ounces; boil one-half hour; turn off the liquor from bark and add alum six ounces; let it stand until cold; while making this, color goods in blue dye-tub a light blue, dry and wash, dip in alum and bark dye. If it does not take well, warm the dye a little.
Purple: For one pound goods. First obtain a light blue, by dipping in home-made dye-tub; then dry; dip in alum four ounces, with water to cover, when little warm. If color is not full enough add chemic.
Yellow: For one pound goods, alum three ounces, sugar of lead three-fourths ounce; immerse goods in solution over night; take out, drain, and make a new lye with fustic one pound; dip until the required color is obtained.
Crimson: For one pound goods, alum three ounces; dip at hand heat one hour; take out and drain while making new dye by boiling ten minutes, cochineal three ounces, bruised nutgalls two ounces and cream of tartar one-fourth ounce, in one pail of water; when little cool, begin to dip, raising heat to boil; dip one hour; wash and dry.
Sky Blue on Silk or Cotton Very Beautiful: Give goods as much color from a solution of blue vitriol two ounces, to water one gallon, as it will take up in dipping fifteen minutes; then run it through lime water. This will make a beautiful and durable sky blue.
Brown on Silk or Cotton Very Beautiful: After obtaining a blue color as above, run goods through a solution of prussiate of potash one ounce, to water one gallon.
Light Blue: For cold water one gallon, dissolve alum one-half tablespoonful, in hot water one teacupful, and add to it; then add chemic, one teaspoonful at a time to obtain the desired color the more chemic the darker the color.
Chrome Black Best in Use: For five pounds of goods, blue vitriol six ounces; boil a few minutes, then dip the goods three-fourths of an hour, airing often; take out the goods, make a dye with three pounds of logwood, boil one-half hour; dip three-fourths of an hour, air goods, and dip three-fourths of an hour more. Wash in strong suds. This will not fade by exposure to sun.
Wine Color: For five pounds of goods, camwood two pounds; boil fifteen minutes and dip the goods one-half hour; boil again and dip one-half hour then darken with blue vitriol one and one-half ounces; if not dark enough, add copperas one-half ounce.
Scarlet Very Fine: For one pound of goods, cream of tartar one-half ounce, cochineal, well pulverized, one half ounce, muriate of tin two and one-half ounces; boil up the dye and enter the goods; work them briskly for ten or fifteen minutes, then boil one and one-half hours, stirring goods slowly while boiling. Wash in clear water and dry in the shade.
Pink: For three pounds of goods, alum three ounces; boil and dip the goods one hour, then add to the dye, cream of tartar four ounces, cochineal, well pulverized, one ounce; boil well and dip the goods while boiling until the color suits.
Blue Quick Process: For two pounds of goods, alum five ounces, cream of tartar three ounces; boil goods in this one hour, then put them into warm water which has more or less extract of indigo in it, according to the depth of color desired, and boil again until it suits, adding more of the blue if needed.
Madder Red: To each pound of goods, alum five ounces, red or cream of tartar one ounce. Put in the goods and bring the kettle to a boil for one-half hour; then air them and boil one-half hour longer; empty the kettle and fill with clean water; put in bran one peck; make it milk-warm, and let it stand until the bran rises; then skim off the bran and put in one-half pound madder; put in the goods and heat slowly until it boils and is done. Wash in strong suds.
Green: For each pound of goods, fustic one pound, with alum three and one-half ounces; steep until strength is out, and soak the goods therein until a good yellow is obtained, then remove the chips, and add extract of indigo or chemic, one tablespoonful at a time, until color suits.
Snuff Brown, Dark: For five pounds of goods, camwood one pound; boil it fifteen minutes; then dip the goods three-fourths of an hour; take them out and add to the dye two and one-half pounds fustic; boil ten minutes, and dip the goods three-fourths of an hour; then add blue vitriol one ounce, copperas four ounces; dip again one-half hour. If not dark enough add more copperas.
Another Method Any Shade: Boil the goods in a mordant of alum two parts, copperas three parts; then rinse them through a bath of madder. The tint depends on the relative proportions of the copperas and alum; the more copperas, the darker the dye; joint weight of both should not be more than one-eighth of weight of goods. Mixtures of reds and yellows with blues and blacks, or simple dyes, will make any shade.
Orange: For five pounds of goods, muriate of tin six tablespoonfuls, argol four ounces; boil and dip one hour and add again to the dye one teacupful of madder; dip again one-half hour. Cochineal, about two ounces, in place of madder, makes a much brighter color.
Purple: For each pound of goods, two ounces of cudbear; rinse the goods well in soap-suds, then dissolve cudbear in hot suds not quite boiling, and soak the goods until of required color. The color is brightened by rinsing in alum water.
Yellow Rich: Work five pounds of goods one-half hour in a boiling bath with three ounces bichromate of potassa and two ounces alum; lift and expose till well cooled and drained; then work one-half hour in another bath with five pounds of fustic. Wash out and dry.
Crimson: Work for one hour in a bath with one pound cochineal paste, six ounces of dry cochineal, one pound of tartar, one pint of protochloride of tin. Wash out and dry.
Salmon: For each pound of goods, one-fourth pound of annotto, one-fourth pound of soap; rinse the goods well in warm water, put them into mixture and boil one-half hour. Shade will be according to the amount of annotto.
Dove and Slate Colors of All Shades: Boil in an iron vessel a teacupful of black tea with a teaspoonful of copperas and sufficient water. Dilute till you get the shade wanted.
Black: For five pounds of goods, boil them in a decoction of three pounds of sumach one-half hour and steep twelve hours; dip in lime-water one-half hour; take out and let them drip one hour, run them through the lime-water again fifteen minutes. Make a new dye with two and one-half pounds log-wood (boiled one hour) and dip again three hours; add bichromate potash two ounces, to the log-wood dye and dip one hour. Wash in clear, cold water and dry in the shade. Only process for permanent black.
Sky Blue: For three pounds of goods, blue vitriol four ounces; boil a few minutes, then dip the goods three hours; then pass them through a strong lime-water. A beautiful brown can be obtained by next putting the goods through a solution of prussiate of potash.
Green: Dip the goods in home-made blue; dye until blue enough is obtained to make the green as dark as required; take out, dry and rinse a little. Make a dye with fustic three pounds, of log-wood three ounces, to each pound of goods, by boiling dye one hour; when cooled so as to bear the hand put in the goods, move briskly a few minutes, and let lie one hour; take out and thoroughly drain; dissolve and add to the dye for each pound of cotton, blue vitriol one-half ounce, and dip another hour. Wring out and let dry in the shade. By adding or diminishing the log-wood and fustic any shade may be had.
Yellow: For five pounds of goods, seven ounces of sugar of lead; dip the goods two hours; make a new dye with bichromate of potash four ounces; dip until the color suits; wring out and dry. If not yellow enough, repeat.
Orange: For five pounds of goods, sugar of lead four ounces; boil a few minutes; when a little cool, put in the goods; dip for two hours; wring out; make a new dye with bichromate potash eight ounces, madder two ounces; dip until it suits; if color is too red, take a small sample and dip into lime-water and choose between them.
Red: Muriate of tin two-thirds of a teacupful; add water to cover the goods; raise to boiling heat; put in the goods one hour, stir often; take out, empty the kettle, put in clean water with nic-wood one pound; steep one-half hour at hand heat; then put in the goods and increase the heat one hour not boiling. Air the goods and dip them one hour as before. Wash without soap.
POINTS ON TABLE ETIQUETTE.
DELICACY of manner at table stamps both man and woman, for one can, at a glance, discern whether a person has been trained to eat well i. e. to hold the knife and fork properly, to eat without the slightest sound of the lips, to drink quietly, to use the napkin rightly, to make no noise with any of the implements of the table, and last, but not least, to eat slowly and masticate the food thoroughly. All these points should be most carefully taught to children, and then they will always feel at their ease at the grandest tables in the land. There is no position where the innate refinement of a person is more fully exhibited than at the table, and nowhere that those who have not been trained in table etiquette feel more keenly their deficiencies. The knife should never be used to carry food to the mouth, but only to cut it up into small mouthfuls; then place it upon the plate at one side, and take the fork in the right hand, and eat all the food with it. When both have been used finally, they should be laid diagonally across the plate, with both handles toward the right hand; this is understood by well-trained waiters to be the signal for removing them, together with the plate.
Be careful to keep the mouth shut closely while masticating the food. It is the opening of the lips which causes the smacking which seems very disgusting Chew your food well, but do it silently, and be careful to take small mouthfuls. The knife can be used to cut the meat finely, as large pieces of meat are not healthful, and appear very indelicate. At many tables, two, three or more knives and forks are placed on the table, the knives at the right hand of the plate, the forks at the left, a knife and a fork for each course, so that there need be no replacing of them after the breakfast and dinner is served. The smaller ones, which are for game, dessert, or for hot cakes at breakfast, can be tucked under the edges of the plate, and the large ones, for the meat and vegetables, are placed outside of them. Be very careful not to clatter your knives and forks upon your plates, but use them without noise. When passing the plate for a second helping, lay them together at one side of the plate, with handles to the right. When you are helped to anything, do not wait until the rest of the company are provided, as it is not considered good breeding. Soup is always served for the first course, and it should be eaten with dessert spoons, and taken from the sides, not the tips, of them, without any sound of the lips, and not sucked into the mouth audibly from the ends of the spoon. Bread should not be broken into soup or gravy. Never ask to be helped to soup a second time. The hostess may ask you to take a second plate, but you will politely decline.
Fish chowder, which is served in soup plates, is said to be an exception which proves this rule, and when eating of that it is correct to take a second plateful if desired.
Another generally neglected obligation is that of spreading butter on one's bread as it lies in one's plate, or but slightly lifted at one end of the plate; it is very frequently buttered in the air, bitten in gouges, and still held in the face and eyes of the table with the marks of the teeth on it. This is certainly not altogether pleasant, and it is better to cut it, a bit at a time, after buttering it, and put piece by piece in the mouth with one's finger and thumb. Never help yourself to butter, or any other food with your own knife or fork. It is not considered good taste to mix food on the same plate. Salt must be left on the side of the plate and never on the tablecloth.
Let us mention a few things concerning the eating of which there is sometimes doubt. A cream-cake and anything of similar nature should be eaten with knife and fork, never bitten. Asparagus which should be always served on bread or toast so as to absorb superfluous moisture may be taken from the finger and thumb; if it is fit to be set before you the whole of it may be eaten. Pastry should be broken and eaten with a fork, never cut with a knife. Raw oysters should be eaten with a fork, also fish. Peas and beans, as we all know, require the fork only; however food that cannot be held with a fork should be eaten with a spoon. Potatoes, if mashed, should be mashed with the fork. Green corn should be eaten from the cob; but it must be held with a single hand.
Celery, cresses, olives, radishes, and relishes of that kind are, of course, to be eaten with the fingers; the salt should be laid upon one's plate, not upon the cloth. Fish is to be eaten with the fork, without the assistance of the knife; a bit of bread in the left hand sometimes helps one to master a refactory morsel. Fresh fruit should be eaten with a silver-bladed knife, especially pears, apples, etc.
Berries, of course, are to be eaten with a spoon. In England they are served with their hulls on, and three or four are considered an ample quantity. But then in England they are many times the size of ours; there they take the big berry by the stem, dip into powdered sugar, and eat it as we do the turnip radish. It is not proper to drink with a spoon in the cup; nor should one, by-the-way, ever quite drain a cup or glass.
Don't, when you drink, elevate your glass as if you were going to stand it inverted on your nose. Bring the glass perpendicularly to the lips, and then lift it to a slight angle. Do this easily.
Drink sparingly while eating. It is far better for the digestion not to drink tea or coffee until the meal is finished. Drink gently, and do not pour it down your throat like water turned out of a pitcher.
When seating yourself at the table, unfold your napkin and lay it across your lap in such a manner that it will not slide off upon the floor; a gentleman should place it across his right knee. Do not tuck it into your neck like a child's bib. For an old person, however, it is well to attach the napkin to a napkin hook and slip it into the vest or dress buttonholes, to protect their garments, or sew a broad tape at two places on the napkin, and pass it over the head. When the soup is eaten, wipe the mouth carefully with the napkin, and use it to wipe the hands after meals. Finger bowls are not a general institution, and yet they seem to be quite as needful as the napkin, for the fingers are also liable to become a little soiled in eating. They can be had quite cheaply, and should be half -filled with water, and placed upon the side table or butler's tray, with the dessert, bread and cheese, etc. They are passed to each person half filled with water, placed on a parti-colored napkin with a dessert plate underneath, when the dessert is placed upon the table. A leaf or two of sweet verbena, an orange flower, or a small slice of lemon, is usually put into each bowl to rub upon the fingers. The slice of lemon is most commonly used. The finger tips are slightly dipped into the bowl, the lemon juice is squeezed upon them, and then they are dried softly upon the napkin. At dinner parties and luncheons they are indispensable.
Spoons are sometimes used with firm puddings, but forks are the better style. A spoon should never be turned over in the mouth.
Ladies have frequently an affected way of holding the knife halfway down its length, as if it were too big for their little hands; but this is as awkward a way as it is weak; the knife should be grasped freely by the handle only, the fore-finger being the only one to touch the blade, and that only along the back of the blade at its root, and no further down.
At the conclusion of a course, where they have been used, knife and fork should be laid side by side across the middle of the plate never crossed; the old custom of crossing them was in obedience to an ancient religious formula. The servant should offer everything at the left of the guest, that the guest may be at liberty to use the right hand. If one has been given a napkin ring, it is necessary to fold one's napkin and use the ring; otherwise the napkin should be left unfolded. One's teeth are not to be picked at table; but if it is impossible to hinder it, it should be done behind the napkin. One may pick a bone at the table, but, as with corn, only one hand is allowed to touch it; yet one can easily get enough from it with knife and fork, which is certainly the more elegant way of doing; and to take her teeth to it gives a lady the look of caring a little too much for the pleasures of the table; one is, however, on no account to suck one 's finger after it.
Whenever there is any doubt as to the best way to do a thing, it is wise to follow that which is the most rational, and that will almost invariably be found to be proper etiquette. To be at ease is a great step towards enjoying your own dinner, and making yourself agreeable to the company. There is reason for everything in polite usage; thus the reason why one does not blow a thing to cool it, is not only that it is an inelegant and vulgar action intrinsically, but because it may be offensive to others cannot help being so, indeed; and it, moreover implies, haste, which, whether from greediness or a desire to get away, is equally objectionable. Everything else may be as easily traced to its origin in the fit and becoming.
If, to conclude, one seats one's self properly at table and takes reason into account, one will do tolerably well. One must not pull one's chair too closely to the table, for the natural result of that is the inability to use one's knife and fork without inconveniencing one's neighbor; the elbows are to be held well in and close to one's side, which cannot be done if the chair is too near the board. One must not lie or lean along the table, nor rest one 's arms upon it. Nor is one to touch any of the dishes; if a member of the family, one can exercise all the duties of hospitality through servants, and wherever there are servants, neither family nor guests are to pass or help from any dish. Finally, when rising from your chair leave it where it stands.
THE LAYING OF THE TABLE AND THE TREATMENT OF GUESTS.
IN giving "dinners," the apparently trifling details are of great importance when taken as a whole.
We gather around our board agreeable persons, and they pay us and our dinner the courtesy of dressing for the occasion, and this reunion should be a time of profit as well as pleasure. There are certain established laws by which "dinner giving" is regulated in polite society; and it may not be amiss to give a few observances in relation to them. One of the first is that an invited guest should arrive at the house of his host at least a quarter of an hour before the time appointed for dinner. In laying the table for dinner all the linen should be a spotless white throughout, and underneath the linen tablecloth should be spread one of thick cotton-flannel or baize, which gives the linen a heavier and finer appearance, also deadening the sound of moving dishes. Large and neatly folded napkins (ironed without starch), with pieces of bread three or four inches long, placed between the folds, but not to completely conceal it, are laid on each plate. An ornamental centre-piece, or a vase filled with a few rare flowers, is put on the centre of the table, in place of the large table-castor, which has gone into disuse, and is rarely seen now on well-appointed tables. A few choice flowers make a charming variety in the appearance of even the most simply laid table, and a pleasing variety at table is quite as essential to the enjoyment of the repast as is a good choice of dishes, for the eye in fact should be gratified as much as the palate.
All dishes should be arranged in harmony with the decorations of the flowers, such as covers, relishes, confectionery, and small sweets. Garnishing of dishes has also a great deal to do with the appearance of a dinner-table, each dish garnished sufficiently to be in good taste without looking absurd.
Beside each plate should be laid as many knives, forks and spoons as will be required for the several courses, unless the hostess prefers to have them brought on with each change. A glass of water, and when wine is served glasses for it, and individual salt-cellars may be placed at every plate. Water-bottles are now much in vogue with corresponding tumblers to cover them; these, accompanied with dishes of broken ice, may be arranged in suitable places. When butter is served a special knife is used, and that, with all other required service, may be left to the judgment and taste of the hostess, in the proper placing of the various aids to her guests' comfort.
The dessert plates should be set ready, each with a doily and a finger-glass partly filled with water, in which is dropped a slice of lemon; these with extra knives, forks and spoons, should be on the side-board ready to be placed beside the guest between the courses when required.
If preferred, the "dinner" may all be served from the side-table, thus relieving the host from the task of carving. A plate is set before each guest, and the dish carved is presented by the waiter on the left-hand side of each guest. At the end of each course the plates give way for those of the next. If not served from the side-table, the dishes are brought in ready carved, and placed before the host and hostess, then served and placed upon the waiter's salver, to be laid by that attendant before the guest.
Soup and fish being the first course, plates of soup are usually placed on the table before the dinner is announced; or if the hostess wishes the soup served at the table, the soup-tureen, containing hot soup, and the warm soup-plates are placed before the seat of the hostess. Soup and fish being disposed of, then come the joints or roasts, entrιes (made dishes), poultry, etc., also relishes.
After dishes have been passed that are required no more, such as vegetables, hot sauces, etc., the dishes containing them may be set upon the side-board, ready to be taken away.
Jellies and sauces, when not to be eaten as a dessert, should be helped on the dinner-plate, not on a small side dish as was the former usage.
If a dish be on the table, some parts of which are preferred to others, according to the taste of the individuals, all should have the opportunity of choice. The host will simply ask each one if he has any preference for a particular part; if he replies in the negative, you are not to repeat the question, nor insist that he must have a preference.
Do not attempt to eulogize your dishes, or apologize that you cannot recommend them this is extreme bad taste; as also is the vaunting of the excellence of your wines, etc., etc.
Do not insist upon your guests partaking of particular dishes. Do not ask persons more than once, and never force a supply upon their plates. It is ill-bred, though common, to press any one to eat; and, moreover, it is a great annoyance to many.
In winter, plates should always be warmed, but not made hot. Two kinds of animal food, or two kinds of dessert, should not be eaten off of one plate, and there should never be more than two kinds of vegetables with one course. Asparagus, green corn, cauliflower and raw tomatoes comprise one course in place of a salad. All meats should be cut across the grain in very thin slices. Fish, at dinner, should be baked or boiled, never fried or broiled. Baked ham may be used in every course after fish, sliced thin and handed after the regular course is disposed of.
The hostess should retain her plate, knife and fork, until her guests have finished.
The crumb-brush is not used until the preparation for bringing in the dessert; then all the glasses are removed, except the flowers, the water-tumblers, and the glass of wine which the guest wishes to retain with his dessert. The dessert plate containing the finger-bowl, also a dessert knife and fork, should then be set before each guest, who at once removes the finger-bowl and its doily, and the knife and fork to the table, leaving the plate ready to be used for any dessert chosen.
Finely sifted sugar should always be placed upon the table to be used with puddings, pies, fruit, etc., and if cream is required, let it stand by the dish it is to be served with.
To lay a dessert for a small entertainment and a few guests outside of the family, it may consist simply of two dishes of fresh fruit in season, two of dried fruits and two each of cakes and nuts.
Coffee and tea are served lastly, poured into tiny cups and served clear, passed around on a tray to each guest, then the sugar and cream passed that each person may be allowed to season his black coffee or cafι noir to suit himself.
A family dinner, even with a few friends, can be made quite attractive and satisfactory without much display or expense; consisting first of good soup, then fish garnished with suitable additions, followed by a roast; then vegetables and some made dishes, a salad, crackers, cheese and olives, then dessert. This sensible meal, well cooked and neatly served, is pleasing to almost any one, and is within the means of any housekeeper in ordinary circumstances.
MEASURES AND WEIGHTS.
* * *
IN ORDINARY USE AMONG HOUSEKEEPERS.
4 Teaspoonfuls equal 1 tablespoonful liquid.
4 Tablespoonfuls equal 1 wine-glass, or half a gill.
2 Wine-glasses equal one gill or half a cup.
2 Gills equal 1 coffeecupful, or 16 tablespoonfuls.
2 Coffeecupfuls equal 1 pint.
2 Pints equal 1 quart.
4 Quarts equal 1 gallon.
2 Tablespoonfuls equal 1 ounce, liquid.
1 Tablespoonful of salt equals 1 ounce.
16 Ounces equal 1 pound, or a pint of liquid.
4 Coffeecupfuls of sifted flour equal 1 pound.
1 Quart of unsifted flour equals 1 pound.
8 or 10 ordinary sized eggs equal 1 pound.
1 Pint of sugar equals 1 pound. (White granulated.)
2 Coffeecupfuls of powdered sugar equal 1 pound.
1 Coffeecupful of cold butter, pressed down, is one-half pound.
1 Tablespoonful of soft butter, well rounded, equals 1 ounce.
An ordinary tumblerful equals 1 coffeecupful, or half a pint.
About 25 drops of any thin liquid will fill a common sized teaspoon.
1 Pint of finely chopped meat, packed solidly, equals 1 pound.
A set of tin measures (with small spouts or lips), from a gallon down to half a gill, will be found very convenient in every kitchen, though common pitchers, bowls, glasses, etc., may be substituted.