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Spring Notes From Tennessee
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FROM APRIL 27 To MAY 18, 1894.

1. Green Heron. Ardea virescens. — A single individual seen from a car window. No other water birds were observed except three or four ducks and a single wader, all vpon the wing and unidentified.

2. Bob White. Quail. Partridge. Colinus virginianus. — Common.

3. Ruffed Grouse. “Pheasant” Bonasa umbellus. — Heard drumming on Walden’s Ridge.

4. Carolina Dove. Mourning Dove. Zenaidura macoura. — A small number seen.

5. Turkey Vulture. Turkey Buzzard. Cathartes aura. Common

6. Black Vulture. Carrion Crow. Catharista atrata — Two birds seen.

7. Red-tailed Hawk. Buteo borealis — one bird seen from Walden’s Ridge.

8. Sparrow Hawk. Falco sparverius. — one bird, on Walden’s Ridge.

9. Yellow-billed Cuckoo. Coccyzus Americanus — Common. First noticed April 29.

10. Black-billed Cuckoo. Coccyzus erythrophthalmus. — Seen twice on Lookout Mountain, May 7 and 8, and on Walden’s Ridge, May 12.

11. Belted Kingfisher. Ceryle alcyon. — A single bird heard on Walden’s Ridge.

12. Hairy Woodpecker. Dryobates villosus. — My notes record seven birds. No attempt was made to determine their specific or sub-specific identity, but they are presumed to have been D. villosus, not D. villosus audubonii.

13. Downy Woodpecker. Dryobates pubescens — A single bird was heard (not seen) on Walden’s Ridge, — a noticeable reversal of the usual relative commonness of this species and the preceding.

14. Red-cockaded Woodpecker. Dryobates borealis. — Found only at Chickamauga, on Snodgrass Hill, in long-leaved pines — two or three birds.

15. Pileated Woodpecker. “Logcock.” Ceophlaeus pileatus. — Said to be common on Walden’s Ridge, where I heard its flicker-like shout.

16. Red-headed Woodpecker. Melanerpes erythrocephalus. — One seen near Missionary Ridge and one et Chickamauga. The scarcity of this bird, and the absence of the red-bellied and the yellow-bellied, were among the surprises of my visit.

17. Flicker. Golden-winged Woodpecker. Colaptes auratus. — Not common. Three birds were seen at Chickamauga, and it was occasional on Walden’s Ridge, where I listed it five days of the seven.

18. Whippoorwill. Antrostomus vociferus. — Undoubtedly common. I heard it only on Walden’s Ridge, the only place where I went into the woods after dark.

19. Nighthawk. Chordeiles virginianus. — Common.

20. Chimney Swift. Chaetura pelagica. — Abundant.

21. Ruby-throated Humming-bird. Trochilus colubris. — Common in the forests of Walden’s Ridge. Seen but twice elsewhere. First seen April 28.

22. Kingbird. Tyranus tyranus. — Seen but three times — nine specimens in all. First seen April 29.

23. Crested Flycatcher. Myiarchus crinitus. — Noticed daily, with two exceptions.

24. Phœbe. Sayornis phœbe. — Common on Lookout Mountain and Walden’s Ridge. Not seen elsewhere.

25. Wood Pewee. Contopus virens. — Very common. Much the most numerous member of the family. Present in good force April 27, and gathering nest materials April 29.

26. Acadian Flycatcher. Green-crested Flycatcher. Empidonax virescens. — Common.

27. Blue Jay. Cyanocitta cristata. — Scarce (for the blue jay), and not seen on Walden’s Ridge!

28. Crow. Corvus americanus. — Apparently much less common than in Eastern Massachusetts.

29. Bobolink. Dolichonyx oryzivorus. — A small flock seen, and heard singing, April 27.

30. Orchard Oriole. Icterus spurius — Common, but not found on Walden’s Ridge.

31. Baltimore Oriole. Icterus galbula. — A single bird, at Chickamauga, May 3.

32. Crow Blackbird. Quiscalus quiscula? — Seen on sundry occasions in the valley country, but specific distinction not made out. Both forms — Q. quiscula and Q. quiscula œneus — are found in Tennessee. See Dr. Fox’s List of Birds found in Roane County, Tennessee. “The Auk,” vol. iii. p. 815. My own list of the Icteridæ is remarkable for its omissions, especially of the cowbird, the red-winged blackbird (which, however, I am pretty certain that I saw on the wing) and the meadow lark.

33. House Sparrow. English Sparrow. Passer domesticus — Distressingly superabundant in the city and its suburbs.

34. Goldfinch. Spine tristis. — Abundant. Still in flocks.

35. White-crowned Sparrow. Zonotrichia leucophrys. Seen but once (May 1), two birds, in the national cemetery.

36. White-throated Sparrow. Zonotrichia albicollis. — Common Still present on Walden’s Ridge (in two places) May 13. Sang very little.

37. Chipping Sparrow. Doorstep Sparrow. Spizella socialis. — Common.

38. Field Sparrow. Spizella pusilla. — Common.

39. Bachman’s Sparrow. Peucæa æstivalis bachmanii. — Common. One of the best of singers.

40. Chewink. Towhee. Pipilo erythrophthalmus. Rather common. Much less numerous than I should have expected from the nature of the country.

41. Cardinal Grosbeak. Cardinalis cardinalis. — Seen daily, but seemingly not very numerous.

42. Rose-breasted Grosbeak. Habia ludoviciana. — A single female, May 11.

43. Indigo-bird. Passerina cyanea. — Very abundant. For the first time I saw tide tropical-looking beauty in flocks.

44. Scarlet Tanager. Piranga erythromelas. — Common on the mountains, but seemingly rare in the valley.

45. Summer Tanager. Piranga rubra. — Common throughout.

46. Purple Martin. Progne subis. — Common.

47. Rough-winged Swallow. Stelgidopteryx serripennis. — A few birds seen.

48. Red-eyed Vireo. Vireo olivaceus. — Common. one of the species listed every day.

49. Yellow-throated Vireo. Vireo flavifrons. — Common. Seen or heard every day except April 27.

50. White-eyed Vireo. Vireo noveboracensis. — Abundant. Heard every day.

51. Black-and-white Creeper. Mniotilta varia. — Very common.

52. Blue-winged Warbler. Helminthophila pinus. — One bird seen at Chickamauga, and a pair on Missionary Ridge.

53. Golden-winged Warbler. Helminthophila chrysoptera. — Common, especially in the broken woods north of the city.

54. Parula Warbler. Blue Yellow-backed Warbler. Compsothlypis americana. — Only on Walden’s Ridge.

55. Cape May Warbler. Dendroica tigrina. — One bird seen on Cameron Hill, and a small company on Lookout Mountain — April 27, and May 7 and 8.

56. Yellow Warbler. Golden Warbler. Dendroica æstiva. — Common, but not observed on Walden’s Ridge.

57. Black-throated Blue Warbler. Dendroica cærulescens. — Common, April 27 to May 14.

58. Myrtle Warbler. Yellow-rumped Warbler. Dendroica coronata. — Noted April 27 and 28, and May 7 and 8.

59. Magnolia Warbler. Dendroica maculosa. — Not uncommon, May 1 to 12.

60. Cerulean Warbler. Dendroica cærulea. — One bird, a male in song, on Lookout Mountain.

61. Chestnut-sided Warbler. Dendroica pensylvanica. — Listed on six dates — April 27 to May 12.

62. Bay-breasted Warbler. Dendroica castanea. Seven or eight individuals — April 27 to May 10.

63. Black-poll Warhler. Dendroica striata — Common to May 13.

64 Blackburnian Warbler. Dendroica blackburniæ. Seven birds. — May 1 to 18.

65. Yellow-throated Warbler. Dendroica dominica. (Albilora?) — Found only at Chickamauga (Snodgrass Hill), where it seemed to be common.

66. Black-throated green Warbler. Dendroica virens. — Common.

67. Pine Warbler. Dendroica vigorsii. — Not numerous, but found in appropriate places

68. Palm Warbler. Dendroica palmarum — The specific — or subspecific — identity of this bird was not certainly determined, but I judged the specimens — seen on four dates, April 29 to May 11 — to be as above given, rather than D. palmarum hypochrysea.

69. Prairie Warbler. Dendroica discolor. — Very common.

70. Oven-bird. Seiurus aurocapillus. — Common on Lookout Mountain and Walden’s Ridge. Seen but once in the lower country.

71. Louisiana Water-thrush. Seiurus motacilla. — A few birds seen on Walden’s Ridge.

72. Kentucky Warbler. Geothlypis formosa — Very common, and in places very unlike.

73. Maryland Yellow-throat. Geothlypis trichas. Common.

74. Yellow-breasted Chat. Icteria virens. — Very common.

75. Hooded Warbler. Sylvania mitrata. — Common, especially along the woodland streams on Walden’s Ridge.

76. Wilson’s Blackcap. Sylvania pusilla. — A single bird on Walden’s Ridge, May 12, in free song.

77. Canadian Warbler. Sylvania canadensis. — Seen on three dates — May 6, 11, and 12.

78. Redstart. Setophaga ruticilla. — Common. Not seen after May 14.

79. Mocking-bird. Mimus polyglottos. — Rare. Not found on the mountains.

80. Catbird. Galeoscoptes carolinensis. — Very common, both in the city and in the country round about.

81. Brown Thrasher. Harporhynchus rufus. — Common.

82. Carolina Wren. Mocking Wren. Thryothorus ludovicianus. — Common.

83. Bewick’s Wren. Thryothorus bewickii. — Not common. Seen only on Missionary Ridge.

84. White-breasted Nuthatch. Sitta carolinensis. Common at Chickamauga and on Walden’s Ridge. A single bird noticed on Lookout Mountain.

85. Tufted Titmouse. Parus bicolor. — Common.

86. Carolina Chickadee. Parus carolinensis. — Common.

87. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. Polioptila cærulea. — Common.

88. Wood Thresh. Turdus mustelinus. — Very common. A bird with its beak full of nest materials was seen April 29, at the base of Missionary Ridge.

89. Wilson’s Thrush. Veery. Turdus fuscescens. — Rare.

90. Gray-cheeked Thrush. Turdus aliciæ, or T. aliciæ bicknelli. — Two birds. May 2 and 13.

91. Swainson’s Thrush. Olive-backed Thrash. Turdus ustulatus swainsonii — In good numbers and free song. Seen on four dates the latest being May 12.

92. Robin. Merula migratoria. — Five birds in the national cemetery, April 29.

93. Bluebird. Sialia sialis. — Common. Young birds out of the nest, April 28.

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