IN the preparation of this essay, I have been much indebted to the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, and especially to the following contributions:
(ON THE SUBJECT OF SHINTŌ)
"The Revival of Pure Shintō, by Sir Ernest Satow, Appendix to Vol. III.
"The Shintō Temples of Isι," by Satow, Vol. II. "Ancient Japanese Rituals," by Satow, Vols. VII and IX. "Japanese Funeral Rites," by A. H. Lay, Vol. XIX.
(ON THE SUBJECT OF LAW AND CUSTOM)
"Notes on Land Tenure and Local Institutions in Old Japan," by Dr. D. B. Simmons. Edited by Professor J. H. Wigmore, Vol. XIX.
"Materials for the Study of Private Law in Old Japan," by Professor J. H. Wigmore, Vol. XX, Supplements 1, 2, 3, 5.
(ON THE CHRISTIAN EPISODE OF THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES)
"The Church at Yamaguchi from 1550 to 1586, by Satow, Vol, VII.
"Review of the Introduction of Christianity into China and Japan," by J. H. Gubbins, Vol. VI.
"Historical Notes on Nagasaki," by W. A. Wooley, Vol. IX.
"The Arima Rebellion," by Dr. Geertz, Vol. IX.
(ON JAPANESE HISTORY AND SOCIOLOGY)
"Early Japanese History," by W. G. Aston, Vol. XVI.
"The Feudal System of Japan under the Tokugawa Shōguns," by J. H. Gubbins, Vol. XV.
The extracts quoted from "The Legacy of lyιyasu" have been taken from the translation made by J. F. Lowder.
I regret not having been able, in preparing this essay, to avail myself of the very remarkable "History of Japan during the Century of Early Foreign Intercourse (1542-1651)," by James Murdoch and Isoh Yamagata, which was published at Kobι last winter. This important work contains much documentary material never before printed, and throws new light upon the religious history of the period. The authors are inclined to believe that, allowing for numerous apostasies, the total number of Christians in Japan at no time much exceeded 300,000; and the reasons given for this opinion, if not conclusive, are at least very strong. Perhaps the most interesting chapters are those dealing with the Machiavellian policy of Hideyoshi in his attitude to the foreign religion and its preachers; but there are few dull pages in the book. Help to a correct understanding of the history of the time is furnished by an excellent set of maps, showing the distribution of the great fiefs and the political partition of the country before and after the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate. Not the least merit of the work is its absolute freedom from religious bias of any sort.