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American Historic Towns

HISTORIC TOWNS OF NEW ENGLAND



Edited by
LYMAN P. POWELL
Illustrated


G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
NEW YORK & LONDON

 
COPYRIGHT, 1898 BY
G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
Entered at stationers' Hall, London

The Knickerbocker Press, New York


PLYMOUTH IN 1622


PREFACE

IN July, 1893, while the first Summer Meeting of the American Society for the Extension of University Teaching was in session at the University of Pennsylvania, I conducted the students, in trips taken from week to week, to historic spots in Philadelphia, the battle-fields of the Brandywine and of Germantown, and to the site of the winter camp at Valley Forge. The experiment was brought to the attention of Dr. Albert Shaw, and at his instance I made a plea through the pages of The American Monthly Review of Reviews, October, 1893, for the revival of the mediŠval pilgrimage, and for its adaptation to educational and patriotic uses. After pointing out some of the advantages of visits paid under competent guidance and with reverent spirit to spots made sacred by high thinking and self-forgetful living, I suggested a ten days' pilgrimage in the footsteps of George Washington.

The suggestion took root in the public mind. Leading journals commended the idea. New England people, already acquainted with the thought of local historical excursions, hailed the proposed pilgrimage with enthusiasm. Men and women from a score of States avowed their eagerness to make the experiment; and at the close of the University Extension Summer Meeting of July, 1894, in which I had lectured on American history, I found myself conducting for the University Extension Society a pilgrimage, starting from Philadelphia, to Hartford, Boston, Cambridge, Lexington, Concord, Salem, Plymouth, Newburg, West Point, Tarrytown, Tappan, New York, Princeton, and Trenton.

The press contributed with discrimination the publicity essential to success. Every community visited rendered intelligent and generous co-operation. And surely no pilgrims, mediŠval or modern, ever had such leadership; for among our cicerones and patriotic orators were: Col. T. W. Higginson, Drs. Edward Everett Hale and Talcott Williams, Hon. Hampton L. Carson, Messrs. Charles Dudley Warner, Richard Watson Gilder, Charles Carlton Coffin, Frank B. Sanborn, Edwin D. Mead,

Hezekiah Butterworth, George P. Morris, Professors W. P. Trent, William M. Sloane, W. W. Goodwin, E. S. Morse, Brig.-Gen. O. B. Ernst, Major Marshall H. Bright, and Rev. William E. Barton.

I had planned in the months that followed to publish a souvenir volume containing the more important addresses made by distinguished men on the historic significance of the places visited; but as the happy experience receded into the past a larger thought laid hold of me. Why not sometime in the infrequent leisure of a busy minister's life edit a series of volumes on American Historic Towns? Kingsley's novels were written amid parish duties, and Dr. McCook has found time, amid exacting ministerial duties, to make perhaps the most searching study ever made by an American of the habits of spiders. Medical experts agree concerning the value of a wholesome avocation to the man who takes his vocation seriously; and congregations are quick to give ear to the earnest preacher whose sermons betray a large outlook on life.

A series of illustrated volumes on American Historic Towns, edited with intelligence, would prove a unique and important contribution to historical literature. To the pious pilgrim to historic shrines the series would, perhaps, give the perspective that every pilgrim needs, and furnish information that no guide-book ever offers. To those who have to stay at home the illustrated volumes would present some compensation for the sacrifice, and would help to satisfy a recognized need. The volumes would probably quicken public interest in our historic past, and contribute to the making of another kind of patriotism than that Dr. Johnson had in mind When he defined it as the "last refuge of a scoundrel."

I foresaw some at least of the serious difficulties that await the editor of such a series. If all the towns for which antiquarians and local enthusiasts would fain find room should be included, the series would be too long. A staff of contributors must be secured, possessing literary skill, historical insight, the antiquarian's patience, and enough confidence in the highest success of the series to be prepared to waive any requirement of adequate pecuniary compensation. Space must be apportioned with impartial but not unsympathetic hand, and the illustrations selected with due discrimination. And, finally, publishers were to be found willing to assume the expense required for the production in suitable form of a series for which no one could with accuracy forecast the sale.

The last and perhaps most serious difficulty was removed almost a year ago when Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons expressed a willingness to take the commercial risk involved in publishing the present volume, which will, it is hoped, be the first of a series. Contributors were then found whose work has, I trust, secured for the undertaking an auspicious beginning. Critics inclined at first glance to speak harshly of the differences among the contributors in style and in literary method are advised to withhold judgment till a closer reading has made clear, as it will, the fundamental differences there are among the towns themselves in history and in spirit. Adequate reasons which need not be stated here have made it advisable to omit Lexington, Groton, Portsmouth, the Mystic towns, and other towns which would naturally be included in a later volume on New England Towns, in case the publication should be continued.

So many have co-operated in the making of this book that I will not undertake to name them all. But I cannot forbear to acknowledge the valuable assistance I have received at every stage of the work from Mr. G. H. Putnam, Mr. George P. Morris, associate editor of The Congregationalist, and Miss Gertrude Wilson, instructor in history at the historic Emma Willard School. The Century Company has, in the preparation of the first chapter on Boston and the chapter on Newport, kindly allowed the use of certain illustrations and portions of articles on Boston and Newport, which have appeared in St. Nicholas and old Scribner's respectively. Some of the illustrations for the Portland chapter have been furnished by Lamson, the Portland photographer.

The Essex Institute, with characteristic generosity, has loaned most of the cuts for the Salem chapter. The Ohio State ArchŠological and Historical Society has allowed the reproduction from The Ohio Quarterly of some of the designs in the Rutland chapter, while certain of the illustrations in the Cape Cod Towns chapter appeared first in Falmouth Illustrated.

Conscious of the editorial shortcomings of the volume, I still dare to hope that it may have such a cordial reception as will justify the publication at some time of a volume on Historic Towns of the Middle States.

LYMAN P. POWELL
AMBLER, PENNSYLVANIA
September 21, 1898.

INTRODUCTION
PORTLAND
RUTLAND, MASS
SALEM
BOSTON_1
BOSTON_2
CAMBRIDGE
CONCORD
PLYMOUTH
CAPE COD TOWNS
DEERFIELD
NEWPORT
PROVIDENCE
HARTFORD
NEW HAVEN
George Perry Morris
Samuel T. Pickard
Edwin D. Mead
George Dimmick Latimer
Thomas Wentworth Higginson
Edward Everett Hale
Samuel A. Eliot
Frank B. Sanborn
Ellen Watson
Katharine Lee Bates
George Sheldon
Susan Coolidge
William B. Weeden
Mary K. Talcott
Frederick H. Cogswell


ILLUSTRATIONS

 
PLYMOUTH IN 1622

PORTLAND


WHITE HEAD, CUSHING ISLAND

DEERING'S WOODS
     Showing brook which the soldiers had to ford in the fight with the
     Indians in 1689
FIRST PARISH CHURCH
     Containing the Mowatt cannon-ball.
THE BIRTHPLACE OF LONGFELLOW
HENRY W. LONGFELLOW
N. P. WILLIS


RUTLAND

DR. CUTLER'S CHURCH AND PARSONAGE AT IPSWICH HAMLET, 1787 2
VIEW OF RUTLAND STREET 3

MANASSEH CUTLER 2
NATHAN DANE 4
RUFUS PUTNAM 5
SITE OF MARIETTA AND HARMAR, 1788 5
THE "CENTRAL TREE" 6
THE OLD RUTLAND INN 7
VIEW OF RUTLAND CENTRE FROM MUSCHOPAUGE HILL 6
BRITISH BARRACKS 7
THE RUFUS PUTNAM HOUSE


SALEM


GOVERNOR ENDICOTT'S SUN-DIAL AND SWORD

THE FIRST MEETING-HOUSE, 1634-39 4
GOVERNOR SIMON BRADSTREET 4
GOVERNOR JOHN ENDICOTT 4
THE PICKERING FIREBACK 4
OLD CRADLE 4
THE ROGER WILLIAMS' OR "WITCH HOUSE" 4
WITCH PINS 4
TIMOTHY PICKERING
SOME OLD DOORWAYS 4
BOWDITCH DESK AND QUADRANT 4
WILLIAM H. PRESCOTT
NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE
     From an engraving from a painting by C. G. Thompson.
NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE—BIRTHPLACE OF HAWTHORNE
HOUSE OF THE SEVEN GABLES—GRIMSHAWE HOUSE
THE OLD TOWN PUMP 4
SEAL OF THE CITY OF SALEM 4


BOSTON

SUCCORY OR "BOSTON WEED"

TRINITY CHURCH 8
BOSTON IN 1757
     From a drawing by Governor Pownall.
OLD CORNER BOOKSTORE 8
OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES
PUBLIC LIBRARY
MAP OF BOSTON IN 1722
CHARLES SUMNER
PHILLIPS BROOKS
FANEUIL HALL IN THE 18TH CENTURY
GOVERNOR THOMAS HUTCHINSON
     From a portrait in possession of the Massachusetts Historical Society,
     once the property of Jonathan Mayhew.
THE OLD SOUTH CHURCH IN ITS PRESENT CONDITION, BUILT IN 1729.
OLD STATE HOUSE
JAMES OTIS
SAMUEL ADAMS
BOSTON MASSACRE
     From a painting by A. Chappel.
LANDING OF BRITISH TROOPS AT BOSTON, 1768
MAP OF BOSTON IN 1775
THE FROG POND ON THE COMMON AS IT NOW APPEARS
SEAL OF THE CITY OF BOSTON


CAMBRIDGE

HARVARD COLLEGE GATE

HOME OF LONGFELLOW
"THE MUSES' FACTORIES."—LOWELL
STATUE OF JOHN HARVARD AND MEMORIAL HALL, HARVARD COLLEGE
HOLWORTHY HALL, HARVARD COLLEGE
HOME OF LOWELL
WASHINGTON ELM
JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL
GYMNASIUM, HARVARD COLLEGE
WILLIAM E. RUSSELL CONCORD
CONCORD RIVER, BY THOREAU'S LANDING
RALPH WALDO EMERSON (1858)
     From a sketch by Rowse.
THE LIGHT AT THE BRIDGE
     Redrawn from Ralph Earle's sketch of 1775.

THE BATTLE OF LEXINGTON, APRIL 19, 1775
     From an old print.
MUSKETS OF CAPTAIN JOHN PARKER
THE MINUTE-MAN 10
     French's first statue.
HAWTHORNE'S OLD MANSE
REVOLUTIONARY INN
HENRY THOREAU (1857) 9
GRAVES OF THE EMERSON FAMILY
HOME OF EMERSON
A. BRONSON ALCOTT (1875) 9
LOUISE M. ALCOTT
SEAL OF THE CITY OF CONCORD


PLYMOUTH

FACSIMILE OF A PAGE FROM GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S

     MANUSCRIPT, "PLIMOTH PLANTATION"
     The original is now in the Boston State House.
PULPIT ROCK, CLARKE'S ISLAND 11
THE EARLY NORMAN DOORWAY AT AUSTERFIELD CHURCH
THE OLD FORT AND FIRST MEETING-HOUSE, ON BURIAL HILL, 1621
GOVERNOR EDWARD WINSLOW 11
THE HARBOR
PLYMOUTH IN 1622 11
THE "MAYFLOWER" IN PLYMOUTH HARBOR 11
     From the painting by W. F. Halsall, in Pilgrim Hall.
THE OLD COLONY SEAL
THE LANDING OF THE FATHERS, PLYMOUTH, DECEMBER 22, 1620
     Copied from an old painting on glass.
THE FULLER CRADLE
AN OLD ENGLISH SPINNING-WHEEL
THE DOTEN HOUSE, 1660 11
     The oldest house in Plymouth.
THE GRAVE OF DR. FRANCIS LE BARRAN, THE NAMELESS NOBLEMAN 11
SEAL OF THE CITY OF PLYMOUTH


CAPE COD TOWNS

THE BEACH, FALMOUTH 12

MAP OF CAPE COD SECTIONS 13 
PROVINCETOWN 

WHARVES AT PROVINCETOWN

PROVINCETOWN IN 1839
     From an old drawing.
HIGHLAND LIGHT
OYSTER POINT, WELLFLEET
BISHOP AND CLERK LIGHT, HYANNIS
OLD WINDMILL, EASTHAM
RUINS OF THE CHATHAM LIGHT
LIFE-SAVING STATION AT WELLFLEET
BASS RIVER BRIDGE, SOUTH YARMOUTH
BARNSTABLE INN
BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF FALMOUTH 14
THE VILLAGE GREEN 15
SHIRICK'S POND, FALMOUTH 14
THE WHALE-SHIP "COMMODORE MORRIS" AND THE
     FALMOUTH CAPTAINS WHO SAILED IN HER 14


DEERFIELD

OLD DEERFIELD STREET, 1671-1898

FRARY HOUSE, 1698
     Oldest in the county.
THIRD MEETING-HOUSE, 1695-1729
     (Old Indian house on the right.)
PARSON WILLIAMS'S HOUSE
     Built by the town, 1707—standing 1898.
DOOR OF "OLD INDIAN HOUSE" HACKED BY INDIANS
     Now in Memorial Hall.
TOMBSTONES OF REV. JOHN WILLIAMS AND HIS WIFE
STEPHEN WILLIAMS, 1693-1782
     A captive of February 29, 1703-4.
GEORGE FULLER, 1822-1884
BUFFET FROM "PARSON WILLIAMS'S" HOUSE
     Now in Memorial Hall.


NEWPORT

THE OLD STONE MILL

NEWPORT IN 1795 16
GEORGE BERKELEY, DEAN OF DERRY 17
WHITEHALL, THE BERKELEY RESIDENCE, BUILT 1729
"PURGATORY" 18
ROCHAMBEAU'S HEADQUARTERS 16
LIFE MASK OF WASHINGTON 19
     Made by Houdon in 1785.
THE PARSONAGE OF MRS. STOWE'S "MINISTER'S WOOING" 16
DOORWAY OF OLD HOUSE ON THAMES STREET 18
GENERAL NATHANAEL GREENE 16
     From one of MalbonÚ s best miniatures.
SEAL OF THE CITY OF NEWPORT


PROVIDENCE

VIEW OF PROVIDENCE

     From the south.
ROGER WILLIAMS RECEIVED BY THE INDIANS
     From a design by A. H. Wray.
THE ROGER WILLIAMS MONUMENT
STEPHEN HOPKINS 20
BROWN UNIVERSITY
FRANCIS WAYLAND
THE CAPITOL
SEAL OF THE CITY OF PROVIDENCE


HARTFORD

MAIN STREET

OLD CENTER BURYING-GROUND
THE CHARTER OAK
OLD STATE HOUSE, NOW CITY HALL
     Built in 1794.
STATUE OF ISRAEL PUTNAM
     J. Q. A. Ward, sculptor.
KENEY MEMORIAL TOWER 21
THE CAPITOL
SOLDIERS' MEMORIAL ARCH
HARRIET BEECHER STOWE
DR. HORACE BUSHNELL
     From a crayon drawing by S. W. Rowse.
J. HAMMOND TRUMBULL, LL.D.
ARMS OF THE CITY OF HARTFORD


NEW HAVEN

TEMPLE STREET

JOHN DAVENPORT
     From a portrait in possession of Yale College.
ROGER SHERMAN 22
     Photographed from statue on the east front of the Capitol at Hartford.
JUDGES' CAVE
A HUMANE ENEMY
PHELPS HALL
OSBORN HALL
THE ART BUILDING
NOAH WEBSTER 23
ELI WHITNEY
EAST ROCK PARK
SEAL OF THE CITY OF NEW HAVEN

______________________________________________

     1 Reproduced by permission of A. S. Burbank, Plymouth, Mass.
     2 Reproduced by permission of the Ohio State ArchŠological and
          Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio.
     3 Reproduced by permission of C. R. Bartlett, Rutland, Mass.
     4 Reproduced by permission of the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass.
     5 Reproduced by permission of the Ohio State ArchŠological and
          Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio.
     6 Reproduced by permission of C. R. Bartlett, Rutland, Mass.
     7 Reproduced by permission of the New England Magazine, Boston, Mass.
     8 Reproduced by permission of Daniel W. Colbath & Co., Boston, Mass.
     9 Reproduced by permission of the New England Magazine, Boston, Mass.
     10 Reproduced by permission of the W. H. Brett Engraving co., Boston, Mass.
     11 Reproduced by permission of A. S. Burbank, Plymouth, Mass.
     12 Reproduced by permission of the Falmouth Board of Industry, Falmouth, Mass.
     13 Reproduced by permission of Geo. H. Walker & Co., Boston, Mass.
     14 Reproduced by permission of the Falmouth Board of Industry, Falmouth, Mass.
     15 Reproduced by permission of W. H. Hewins, Falmouth, Mass.
     16 Reproduced by permission of Simon Hart, Newport, R. I
     17 Reproduced, with permission, from Porter's Two Hundredth Birthday of Bishop
       George Berkeley, published by Messrs. Charles Scribner's sons.
     18 Reproduced by permission of The century Co.
     19 Reproduced, with permission, from the American Monthly Review of Reviews,
          from the editors article on the Renaissance of the Mediaeval Pilgrimage,
          published in October, 1893.
     20 Reproduced by permission of Messrs. D. Appleton & Co.
     21 Reproduced from Trips by Trolley and Awheel around Hartford.
     22 Reproduced, with permission, from Boutell's Life of Roger Sherman, published by A. C. McClurg & co.,     
          Chicago, Ill.
     23 Reproduced, with permission, from Webster's Dictionary, published by G. & C.
         Merriam Co., Springfield, Mass.